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8

Yes, sort of. Illiterate people could "sign" using hand prints, which is a reasonably reliable biometric (totally anecdotal, but my university's experience was <10% false identification) that's a bit easier to authenticate by the naked eye. Prints of the finger (more than just the tip) could also be authenticated based on feature such as lengths between ...


5

Because they were not "better" or "more effective". There are generally poor reports of the People's Liberation Army's effectiveness against Japan during World War II. - Elleman, Bruce A. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Routledge, 2005. Keep in mind that comparisons are difficult to make because the Nationalists[1] bore the brunt[2] of all ...


5

Yes It's a variant of the belt claw technique of arming crossbows. Possible reasons include extended range due to a greater pull and presenting a smaller target profile for opposing crossbowmen. Bear in mind that military techniques varied throughout Chinese history, and that much of current theory is based on conjecture. Here's what we do know: Chinese ...


5

No. The Sino-Soviet split was motivated by fundamental differences in national interests, so there is little that a third party like the US could have done to influence it. Furthermore, US policy makers were wilfully ignorant of early signs of the split, which means that they did not exploit the situation until it had become abundantly clear, by the ...


2

My answer is based on my own personal experience (in 1966 I was 12 years old and was reading newspapers and watching TV in Soviet Union). The coverage was strictly negative. They were showing the excited mob of "Red Guards" (Russian media was calling them "khunweibins" which is probably a transliteration from Chinese, the term "Red Guards" had a positive ...


1

I looked up Ienaga's book, which seems to be generally speaking a cerdible source. However, the pages where he discusses the 8th Route army and the Communist resistance to the Japanese in general (pp. 88-96) are actually not as well-documented as the rest of the book. His main argument is basically that the Communists were so successful in their ...


1

Maybe another way of putting it was that the U.S. tried to "capitalize" on discord between Russia and China. The U.S. supported China during the Sino-Vietnamese "war" of 1979,by establishing an Embassy in Beijing during the war. Also, after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in the early 1980s, the U.S. sent weapons such as "stinger" missiles to the ...



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