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The Chinese situation was fundamentally different from the Western European colonial empires. In fact it's rather more like Russia, who also managed to keep her Eurasian empire, or the United States, who acquire vast territories West of the Mississippi. In the case of China, those lands you refer to are mostly Sinkiang and Tibet. Most notably there is the ...


8

Keep in mind that most of China was controlled by local warlords (or Imperial Japan) throughout much of this period. A lot of the time there wasn't much of a "under the Republican government" to speak of since they were effectively ruled by regional strongmen. However, generally speaking, women (particularly those from literati families) experienced a ...


7

I've argued elsewhere that it depends on cultural importance of blood lines. In particular, whether surnames arose as a mark of lineage, or for ease of identification. I believe that applies here as well: Cultures with strong views of family tend to adopt a collective representative name. In those without, surnames tend to come about for identifying ...


5

Yes. Wikipedia maintains a list of "Wars and Anthropogenic Disasters by Death Toll." Here are the 19th century entries, with lower and upper estimates for death toll. Taiping Rebellion (20-100 million) Napoleonic Wars (3.5-7 million) Shaka's Conquests (1.5-2 million) Du Wenxiu Rebellion (0.8-1 million) American Civil War (0.67-0.85 million) Circassian ...


5

Trotskyism, and by extension Trotsky himself (and vice versa) was definitely denounced in early Communist Chinese propaganda. Whether or not he was a "hate figure" depends on what criteria you use for that nebulous phrase. Since the question declined to define it, I'll focus on the government's general attitude instead - though personally, I would say it was ...


3

The New Culture Movement was an intellectual revolution in China during the early 20th century. In a large sense it marked the birth of Communism in China. Originally, the movement emerged as a reaction to Chinese diplomatic weakness by the traditional literati. The movement was championed by intellectuals who had grown disillusioned with the early ...


3

Hideyoshi's reasons were not singular. A number of factors motivated his invasion of Korea. Although speculative hypothesis regarding his mental state is popular, domestic pressure for expansion coupled with seemingly-promising opportunities sufficiently explains the decision. TL;DR: Hideyoshi needed land and to keep his soldiers occupied. Korea was an easy ...


2

No. However, the Han Court did try to make the Hsiung'nu subservient to the Han Emperor through marriage alliances. Nicolae Iorga might have gotten the idea of Modu Chanyu (aka Mete Khan) being a Chinese servant from their wishful thinking. In 200 B.C., Modu invaded the newly established Han China. The first Han Emperor, Liu Bang, personally led a large ...


2

The short answer is because the Japanese government does not designate it as a public holiday. Officially, China does in fact celebrate New Year's Day (元旦) on the Western (Gregorian) 1 January. In contrast, the traditional lunar new year is a public holiday named Spring Festival (春节). Since the latter is a longer holiday, combined with ancient traditions, ...


1

It is not an either/or situation. In China they celebrate Gregorian New Year on 1 January and the traditional lunar New Year as well. It is the same in Vietnam.


1

It looks like the short answer is "No". At least I can't find anything historical that explains this, outside of the fact that Chinese culture and Western culture developed independently, and thus were forced to invent their own ways of doing things. I did some digging, but couldn't find any significant difference in how married women are traditionally ...


1

Hideyoshi's predecessor, Oda Nobunaga, ruled mainly through fear and intimidation. Hideyoshi had a more benign approach. When conquering Shikoku and Kyushsu he let the local daimyo keep their holding provided they swore him loyalty. Hence, there were no spoils of war to divide among his retainers to the same extent that Nobunaga was able to. Megalomania is ...



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