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16

Well, the short answer is no, unless you define "always" to start at around 1683. Historically, Taiwan is in fact the ancestral home of the Austronesian language family. Prior to modern times, this was the world's most geographically diverse language family, with speakers ranged from Madagascar to Easter Island to Hawaii. There are several subgroups in ...


14

And if you'd lived your life in the Republic of China you'd have learned that Taiwan is an independent nation, the one true China, and that the rebel government in Beijing is illegally in power there (that may have been toned down now, but that used to be the line in the ROC). Both are of course propaganda. Truth is Taiwan wasn't "always" part of China ...


14

Because China was actually pretty far from India. For most of the past millennia, China and India were not "neighbouring countries" in any meaningful sense of the word. Most Chinese empires did not actually stretch all the way to the Indian subcontinent. It seems you're considering China and India based on their modern borders, but that is misleading: ...


9

The basis for the 5,000 years figure comes from tracing Chinese "history" to the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. This figure includes over 1,000 years of legends. The next 1000 years are semi-legendary, being only somewhat corroborated by historical evidence. We start to have fragmentary historical records for a few centuries after that, but true ...


8

They didn't try because it wasn't politically relevant to them (i.e. The Emperor wasn't interested). Chinese dynasties preferred a tributary network instead of European or Pan-Arabic style colonisation. This reasoning worked well enough considering the key motivation for Europeans traders to sail beyond Europe was to bypass Arabic tariffs on the Silk Road ...


8

It depends on the location and time. Using the number of chariots to denote the size of an army is most often a Spring and Autumn practice. During this period, the traditional, ritualistic formal system of the Chou Dynasty degraded and gave way to ad hoc reforms. Part of these reforms is changes in military organisation. The Chou dynasty prescribed ...


7

This is partly covered in the article "India and the Great Divergence: An Anglo-Indian Comparison of GDP per Capita, 1600-1871" by Stephen Broadberry and Bishnupriya Gupta. The article is available here: http://www.lse.ac.uk/economicHistory/pdf/Broadberry/IndianGDPpre1970v7.pdf . (Note that in-progress articles like this have a tendency to disappear from ...


7

The Mongols and Manchus elected to "join" China upon conquering it, because the latter was more advanced and civilized. So upon conquering China, they just took over the Chinese cities, palaces, country, for themselves, and installed themselves as the ruling class. After the death of Genghis Khan, the "father" of the Mongol Empire, it divided into four ...


6

The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over ...


6

The Qing Dynasty had run out of steam by the 19th century. The government did try to modernise (the Self-Strengthening Movement) but the imperial government's authority was too weak and its civic infrastructure was too corrupt to embark on the systematic modernisation that Japan undertook in the Meiji era. The factions within the Qing imperial court and ...


5

"Living Standards" require certain measures or standards. It is therefore very difficult to come to empirical conclusions. On what basis do we judge living standards? However, if we consider Gross Domestic Product and Per Capita Gross Domestic Product, as well as wages in absolute terms, that is taking some particular year as a base (100) then a few ...


5

The Chinese Communist party has, from its earliest establishment, made it a practice to carefully control weapons in its areas of control. In this respect it is not much different than most political and military movements that are attempting to gain control of a territory or overthrow a state. The degree of strictness the party authorities took with view ...


5

No. It does not always go hand in hand. In fact, if history is any guide, it tended to be the opposite. There are a lot more successful, stable empires than democracy. Many empires saw long period of peace and prosperity that they were called "Pax something", like Pax Romana, Pax Mongolica and Pax Ottomana. Other than those we also have the Imperial China, ...


5

Well, to be factual, more like 4100 years+ of history is available for study. Xia Dynasty is dated back to cca 2100 BC - 1600 BC, numerous sites approves these dates. Before these days dates and historical records get more and more inaccurate and entering into the realm of legends. "5000 years" seems more like a generous rounding up, but it is not very far ...


4

To begin with, the statistics shows China 44% of its time was under a unified rule. The number for Europe is 18%. So we want to know why (and hope this question makes sense). So it is a comparative history question. In order to establish a comparative history, much efforts have to be put before the blind comparison is made. On this topic, a very good ...


4

Heavily revised based on comments This question is NOT simple; I would argue that it cannot be answered, but I can outline what I think the parameters of the answer might be. In "The Origins of Political Order", Fukayama makes a throwaway comment that the key is that the government be accountable to the people; democracy is only one of the ways that ...


4

In addition to Tom Au's answer on the Meiji Restoration above, is the break down of the central coordinating mechanisms of the Tokugawa or Edo Era that preceded the Meiji Era. In ca 1600, Japan was unified under a military regime (bakufu or Shogunate) led by the supreme military leader, the Shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu who had his castle in Edo (now Tokyo). The ...


4

Neither, really. The Zhou Dynasty classed its vassals into five ranks, 公 侯 伯 子 男, which are usually translated into English as Duke, Marquis, Count, Viscount and Baron. The State of Lu held a rank of Marquis (侯). Accordingly, its rulers are properly referred to as Marquis of Lu (魯侯). For example, Marquis Xi of Lu (魯侯戲) whose given name was Xi. However, ...


4

Good Fences Make Good Neighboors The answer consists of 1 word - Himalayas. Okay, let me add the second word: Tibet. Basically, the two cultures have been completely separated by an insurmountable barrier (not to mention that the fact that India and China share a border today is an artifact of the 20th century, when China annexed Tibet).


3

I'm a specialist of Japan not China but many influences including architecture came from China to Japan. Japan, South Korea and China all had their own long architectural histories. In addition to the information on roof charms already supplied, various symbols were used there for the protection of buildings. In particular is it typical to see ornamental ...


3

This will be an unpopular view, but I would suggest the biggest blunder is a failure to exploit Japan's peace offers prior to 1938. Remember that Imperial Japan was wracked with internal conflicts and factionalism, and that its establishment historically viewed the Soviet Union as its primary enemy. When the war in China broke out, significant voices in the ...


3

One of the major reasons why Spanish invasion of Americas was so successful was that Columbus voyages came just in the right time: Spanish had a huge standing army of war-toughened soldiers with nothing to do, nothing to lose, and eager for adventure. Serendipitously, in the same year as Columbus discovered America, Spaniards drove Moors out of Iberian ...


3

It's a much more complicated process than saying "Let's do it.", to provision a sea voyage of (at that time) likely 12+ months, return trip. Accurate maps didn't exist at the requisite scale, and pilots "chart's" were patentable; so a European pilot (or three) would have been advised.


3

If you look at the map, you can see that there are highly mountainous regions covering northeastern India and Southwest China. So even if you draw a boundary line somewhere through these mountains, you can see that the desirability and likelihood of moving or fighting across these mountains is pretty slim (at least until 1962). They acted as a buffer zone ...


3

According to the book of Han, it's 100 plus some (百餘人). The full entry is as follows and pretty much matches the description on Wikipedia: 濟東王彭離立二十九年。彭離驕悍,昏莫私與其奴亡命少年數十人行剽,殺人取財物以為好。所殺發覺者百餘人,國皆知之,莫敢夜行。所殺者子上書告言,有司請誅,武帝弗忍,廢為庶人,徙上庸,國除,為大河郡。 http://ctext.org/han-shu/wen-san-wang-zhuan The translation on Wikipedia is acceptable so I'll reproduce here (with ...


2

Australia 1975-2014 (ongoing). Wendy Lowensteins' Weevils at Work is good on this. The protest movement of the 1970s and 1980s was effectively controlled by the early 1990s and massive youth non-waged employment1 has been controlled through the Universities, TAFE and unemployment systems. 1: This seems to me to be the key indicator of actual unemployment, ...


2

In terms of the objective you defined in the question, the Shu army had a reasonable chance of success. Liu Bei's army held two significant advantages: Superior infantry: the Shu army consisted of battle hardened, professional veterans who were better versed in field combat than Wu soldiers, especially in mountainous regions. The strength of the Wu ...


2

See this : REFERENCE : List of regions by past GDP (PPP)


2

When Mao drove Chiang Kai-shek out of China, the latter took over Taiwan by military force. What would be the need to do that if it was a part of China? He then required all Taiwanese to join the army because he wanted to go back and take over the mainland. That never happened, so the pure Chinese came in 1949~1954 period, when Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan ...


2

There was a project earlier called the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, but because it's a sensitive matter for Chinese, as well as the political situation regarding the People's Republic of china, there's a ton of dispute about it. Even in Chinese texts, it doesn't all agree. The Shiji, for example, paints a starkly different picture than the Bamboo ...



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