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46

Because the Japanese Government surrendered on 15 August. Naturally, the Japanese military was ordered to lay down their arms. For Manchuria this meant the much-reduced Kwantung Army, which accordingly surrendered as a unit to the advancing Soviets. There is a surprising amount of confusion over when exactly the surrender took place. A quick search found ...


41

Verse 3. After crossing a river, you should get far away from it. If the river is a barrier, you can be hemmed in against it. If your enemy is the one hemmed in, they also have a defense on at least one side, preventing you from surrounding them. Verse 4. When an invading force crosses a river in its onward march, do not advance to meet it in mid-...


27

Everyone learnt from the Korean War and wished to avoid a repeat of a bloody direct Chinese-American fighting. At the onset of the escalated American involvement in 1965, Beijing made it clear where the Chinese line in the sand is: [I]f the Americans went beyond the bombing of the North and used ground forces to invade North Vietnam, China would have to ...


11

In Ancient China, the primary method of coordinating units were to use flags, drums and gongs. Beating drums was a signal to advance, whereas ringing gongs was an order to retreat. The use of flags instructed units on the battlefield to move in specific directions. 《吳子‧應變》 凡戰之法,晝以旌旗旛麾為節,夜以金鼓笳笛為節。麾左而左,麾右而右。鼓之則進,金之則止。 (Wuzi, chapter "Reaction") The ...


11

Because they were delayed in Xuzhou, and before that in Shanghai. At first, in July 1937, fighting was localised in North China, but for various reasons, hostilities erupted in Shanghai one month later, in August, escalating the situation to a full-scale war. That battle dragged on for 3 months, with Japan landing an entire field army in the city. Without ...


9

Initially, Japanese observers thought the Taiping Rebellion was a nationalist revolt by Ming China loyalists. This perception was encouraged by for instance the rebel slogan "Destroy Manchuria, Revive Han China (滅満興漢)". Thus, Japan believed the rebellion to be an attempt by the subjugated Han Chinese natives to free themselves form their Manchurian overlords....


9

Sort of. Chinese Histories are not without records of generals who can really fight. For instance, in the Records of the Three Kingdoms (not romance), Chen Shou states "黃忠趙雲強摯壯猛 並作爪牙 其灌滕之徒歟". He notes specifically Huang Zhong and Zhao Yun's fighting prowess, and compares them to earlier examples such as Guan Ying and Xiahou Ying, who were said to be fierce ...


9

No, this story is assuredly bogus. First of all, there is no evidence that Jiang Baili graduated with the highest score. The Imperial Japanese Army Academy held two graduations in 1905: the 17th and 18th classes. See the following table of top graduates, between 1902 and 1907 for good measure. - From left to right, the columns are: Class, Graduation ...


9

I don't think you can describe it as "get[ting] rid of" former Nationalist troops. However, there is some truth to the basic idea that Nationalist soldiers fought in Korea. Since soldiers had to obey the chain of command, to some extent you may describe that as being "forced to fight", as well The best example is the PLA 50th Army, which used to be the NRA ...


8

Related: It's worth noting the little (apparently) known fact that the Chinese and Vietnamese held Vietnam Warr part 3* between themselves after the end of part 2 with substantial losses on both sides. (*Part 1 - with France, part 2 with USA). Significant disgreements exist to the present and various "incidents" involving deaths on both sides (mainly ...


6

Ridley's argument as presented above is very simplistic. Fragmentation may sometimes lead to prosperity, but only if a number of other conditions are fulfilled. To my mind, these other conditions are more important and more interesting than the number of countries in the world, which seems incidental and arbitrary. Does Ridley think more fragmentation is ...


6

It is not so long ago that Jean Lannes, Duc de Montebello, inspired his troops into the breach once more at the Siege of Ratisbon by grabbing a scaling ladder and exclaiming I was a grenadier before I was a marshal, and am still one. Lannes had to be physically restrained from advancing forward to the breach, but his men took heart and, advancing into ...


5

Korea King Jumong, who founded the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, was the son of Hae Mo-su of Buyeo who was reputed to be a "son of Heaven". Later, Goguryeo's spiritual successor state of Goryeo styled their rulers "son of heaven", but only internally. Externally, or specifically when dealing with China, the Goryeo monarchs styled themselves merely kings. ...


5

I don't have any quotes handy and can't comment yet. However I remember another concept Sun Tzu suggests: When an army has no retreat, the individual fighters will defend themselves more viciously. It may seem counter-intuitive but soldiers hold back even when defending themselves. They fear being injured and keep looking for ways to retreat. The idea is ...


5

Those are a lot of questions! Referenced quotes at the bottom. How could they coordinate such an immense mass of people? Divide up the command. How could they provide the logistics? They brought everything with them and hoped either to resupply from the enemy or not at all (win quickly). These armies had to be separated into smaller armies I ...


5

This particular coin is part of a set of commemorative tokens (aka fantasy coins) made in (modern) China, with a token for each of the Qing Dynasty emperors. This one shows Emperor Nurhaci with the dates when he was in power shown below his likeness on the "coin".


5

Yes, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) included many Nationalist POWs including a whole Nationalist army. The People's Volunteer Army which attacked Korea was made up of PLA units. However, I find no evidence they were considered disposable. According to The Chinese Communist Army in Action: The Korean War and Its Aftermath by Alexander L. George on page ...


4

I assume your question is: Since People's Republic of China (PRC) exists, was Taiwan considered as part of it? It is more like a political question than historical, since the current situation of PRC and ROC (Republic of China) is still unsettled since the end of the civil war. I am sure most of us know that People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, but ...


4

My interpretation is that the basic idea here is that the force that crosses the river is at a huge disadvantage. Based on that, there are two obvious problems with putting yourself on the opposite bank of a river when you are "anxious to fight". The first is that this may well delay things greatly, as a sensible general will not be quick to make a contested ...


4

They aren't comparable. The Japanese soldiers in the Pacific Islands were crack troops that had been fighting bloody battles for years. They were mentally prepared to fight to the end. The Japanese army in Manchuria was just a light infantry garrison for suppressing guerillas. It hadn't fought any real armies since the Soviets and the Japanese signed the non-...


4

Further research seems to indicate that the last part of the question is correct and that various statements to the effect that the Tartars were "Mongols" or "Turks" may be incorrect. An issue of the United Service Magazine in 1853 published an article stating the following: The Chinese army contains three very distinct elements: the Tartar Mantchou ...


4

American attitudes toward China were best expressed in the Open Door Policy. This policy was, in fact, aimed at "rolling back" some of the special privileges others were trying to "rent." American didn't want to "rent" parts of China because she didn't want other countries to "rent" (and thereby divide) China into 5-10 "special" regions. America was on its ...


4

Chairman Deng Xiaoping, de facto leader of China at the time and architect of the decision to use martial law, delivered an address to his military commanders June 9th, 1989 a few days after the protests had been crushed. In summation, this was not viewed as just a student anti-corruption protest, which he considered an acceptable grievance, but as a counter-...


3

Kong Rong and his family's execution was not due to saying any one thing. Rather, Cao Cao long harboured a festering resentment over his vocal criticism. As a 20th generation descendant of Confucius Kong was a Han loyalist. In line with Confuscian morals, he strongly opposed Cao Cao's increasingly tyrannical usurpation of imperial governance. The Book of ...


3

Battlefield conditions were a lot different in the Pacific Islands than in Manchuria. First, an island is a much smaller battlefield, and if you were forced out your position, there weren't "other" places to run and hide. Under these circumstances, you stayed in your cave or foxhole, and defended it to the death, "knowing" that everyone else was doing the ...


3

CGCampbell lays out the tactical considerations so I will add in some strategic context. The goals of warfare in Sun Tzu's day differed massively from those in our era. Wars in those days had more in common with street gangs squabbling over turf than what we consider valid war goals. All political organizations rested on family structure and individuals who ...


3

The Oracle Bones from the Shang Dynasty discovered in 1899 are still revealing plenty of new information and would be considered the earliest primary source of historical information on the Chinese culture. A terrific podcast on Chinese history is called The China History Podcast by Laslo Montgomery http://chinahistorypodcast.com/


3

Based on that argument, the 57 countries comprising Africa should be more prosperous than they are. The division of Germany into East Germany & West Germany after World War II didn't make East Germany prosperous as West Germany became, prior to reunification of the two Germanies and likewise for North Korea after the division of Korea following the ...


3

The answer seems to be pretty clear from the Wikipedia entry on Lin Biao. how did he get any power at all? I am quoting the same article here: As a child, Lin was much more interested in participating in student movements than in pursuing his formal education. Lin joined a satellite organization of the Communist Youth League before he graduated ...


3

According to The Pacific War: Japan Versus the Allies by Alan J. Levine, corruption was a partial cause: ... The Chinese Army nominally had no less than 182 infantry divisions against 21 regular Japanese divisions. But most Chinese units were actually at half-strength or less, thanks partly to the amiable custom of having commanders pay their own troops—...



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