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43

Because the Japanese Government surrendered on 15 August. Naturally, the Japanese military was ordered to lay down their arms. For Manchuria this meant the much-reduced Kwantung Army, which accordingly surrendered as a unit to the advancing Soviets. There is a surprising amount of confusion over when exactly the surrender took place. A quick search found ...


41

Verse 3. After crossing a river, you should get far away from it. If the river is a barrier, you can be hemmed in against it. If your enemy is the one hemmed in, they also have a defense on at least one side, preventing you from surrounding them. Verse 4. When an invading force crosses a river in its onward march, do not advance to meet it in ...


26

Everyone learnt from the Korean War and wished to avoid a repeat of a bloody direct Chinese-American fighting. At the onset of the escalated American involvement in 1965, Beijing made it clear where the Chinese line in the sand is: [I]f the Americans went beyond the bombing of the North and used ground forces to invade North Vietnam, China would have to ...


18

One possible term for the situation you described is technological lock in. This is more commonly associated with the development of sustainable energy (vs cheap oil), so it is probably not the specific name you were looking for. It does however refer to a similar situation where non-optimal (for a given definition thereof) technology becomes dominant, and ...


14

In Dutch this is known as wet van de remmende voorsprong, which has been translated to Law of the handicap of a head start on Wikipedia. The page has a few examples similar to yours. That a page with such an awful name exists plus the number of discussions I find about how to translate the Dutch phrase makes me think that there is no exact name for this ...


12

In terms of Chinese naval explorers in general, Zheng He springs to mind. He was one of China's primary explorers in the Indian Ocean and beyond in the 14th and 15th centuries. Around this time, the Europeans had been venturing eastward. Zheng He went westward to the "Western Oceans", going to India and the Middle East by sea in an attempt to show China's ...


11

In Ancient China, the primary method of coordinating units were to use flags, drums and gongs. Beating drums was a signal to advance, whereas ringing gongs was an order to retreat. The use of flags instructed units on the battlefield to move in specific directions. 《吳子‧應變》 凡戰之法,晝以旌旗旛麾為節,夜以金鼓笳笛為節。麾左而左,麾右而右。鼓之則進,金之則止。 (Wuzi, chapter "Reaction") The ...


11

Because they were delayed in Xuzhou, and before that in Shanghai. At first, in July 1937, fighting was localised in North China, but for various reasons, hostilities erupted in Shanghai one month later, in August, escalating the situation to a full-scale war. That battle dragged on for 3 months, with Japan landing an entire field army in the city. Without ...


10

I think there are these reasons: Around the time of its decline, Chinese philosophy was quasi-religious, and exclusionary. That is, Mohism was actively suppressed by regimes that adopted other philosophies, such as Confucianism. Some of its doctrines became obsolete Some of its doctrines were absorbed by the other philosophies Exclusion Mohism arose ...


9

Initially, Japanese observers thought the Taiping Rebellion was a nationalist revolt by Ming China loyalists. This perception was encouraged by for instance the rebel slogan "Destroy Manchuria, Revive Han China (滅満興漢)". Thus, Japan believed the rebellion to be an attempt by the subjugated Han Chinese natives to free themselves form their Manchurian ...


9

Sort of. Chinese Histories are not without records of generals who can really fight. For instance, in the Records of the Three Kingdoms (not romance), Chen Shou states "黃忠趙雲強摯壯猛 並作爪牙 其灌滕之徒歟". He notes specifically Huang Zhong and Zhao Yun's fighting prowess, and compares them to earlier examples such as Guan Ying and Xiahou Ying, who were said to be fierce ...


9

No, this story is assuredly bogus. First of all, there is no evidence that Jiang Baili graduated with the highest score. The Imperial Japanese Army Academy held two graduations in 1905: the 17th and 18th classes. See the following table of top graduates, between 1902 and 1907 for good measure. - From left to right, the columns are: Class, Graduation ...


8

Related: It's worth noting the little (apparently) known fact that the Chinese and Vietnamese held Vietnam Warr part 3* between themselves after the end of part 2 with substantial losses on both sides. (*Part 1 - with France, part 2 with USA). Significant disgreements exist to the present and various "incidents" involving deaths on both sides (mainly ...


8

I don't think you can describe it as "get[ting] rid of" former Nationalist troops. However, there is some truth to the basic idea that Nationalist soldiers fought in Korea. Since soldiers had to obey the chain of command, to some extent you may describe that as being "forced to fight", as well The best example is the PLA 50th Army, which used to be the NRA ...


7

In theory, not very. The most infamous of the late Ming taxes were what's the known as the Three Payments (三餉), so named because they were instituted to fund payments fo the army. From contemporary and Qing era history works such as the Veritable Records of Ming and the History of Ming, we know these were: 遼餉 (Liao Pay) - fund the defence of Liaodong ...


6

There is an ancient relationship with Tibet, but it is with the Mongols, not with China. During the Yuan dynasty, Tibet was part of the Mongol Yuan empire, but not part of Yuan China. They were two entirely separate administrative units, that happened to share one ruler. It is true that the office administering Tibet was located in Beijing, but it was an ...


6

Ridley's argument as presented above is very simplistic. Fragmentation may sometimes lead to prosperity, but only if a number of other conditions are fulfilled. To my mind, these other conditions are more important and more interesting than the number of countries in the world, which seems incidental and arbitrary. Does Ridley think more fragmentation is ...


6

It is not so long ago that Jean Lannes, Duc de Montebello, inspired his troops into the breach once more at the Siege of Ratisbon by grabbing a scaling ladder and exclaiming I was a grenadier before I was a marshal, and am still one. Lannes had to be physically restrained from advancing forward to the breach, but his men took heart and, advancing into ...


5

I recommend reading Ian Morris' book Why The West Rules - For Now. He discusses this topic in a few chapters. Although Ming Dynasty China had ships which could cross the Pacific and sail around the entire world, the government ministers chose not to. (The Ming Emperor was 12 years old at the time, so the government mandarins would have been making the ...


5

Those are a lot of questions! Referenced quotes at the bottom. How could they coordinate such an immense mass of people? Divide up the command. How could they provide the logistics? They brought everything with them and hoped either to resupply from the enemy or not at all (win quickly). These armies had to be separated into smaller armies I ...


5

Korea King Jumong, who founded the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, was the son of Hae Mo-su of Buyeo who was reputed to be a "son of Heaven". Later, Goguryeo's spiritual successor state of Goryeo styled their rulers "son of heaven", but only internally. Externally, or specifically when dealing with China, the Goryeo monarchs styled themselves merely kings. ...


5

I don't have any quotes handy and can't comment yet. However I remember another concept Sun Tzu suggests: When an army has no retreat, the individual fighters will defend themselves more viciously. It may seem counter-intuitive but soldiers hold back even when defending themselves. They fear being injured and keep looking for ways to retreat. The idea is ...


5

This particular coin is part of a set of commemorative tokens (aka fantasy coins) made in (modern) China, with a token for each of the Qing Dynasty emperors. This one shows Emperor Nurhaci with the dates when he was in power shown below his likeness on the "coin".


4

I assume your question is: Since People's Republic of China (PRC) exists, was Taiwan considered as part of it? It is more like a political question than historical, since the current situation of PRC and ROC (Republic of China) is still unsettled since the end of the civil war. I am sure most of us know that People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, but ...


4

Further research seems to indicate that the last part of the question is correct and that various statements to the effect that the Tartars were "Mongols" or "Turks" may be incorrect. An issue of the United Service Magazine in 1853 published an article stating the following: The Chinese army contains three very distinct elements: the Tartar Mantchou ...


4

Yes, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) included many Nationalist POWs including a whole Nationalist army. The People's Volunteer Army which attacked Korea was made up of PLA units. However, I find no evidence they were considered disposable. According to The Chinese Communist Army in Action: The Korean War and Its Aftermath by Alexander L. George on page ...


4

American attitudes toward China were best expressed in the Open Door Policy. This policy was, in fact, aimed at "rolling back" some of the special privileges others were trying to "rent." American didn't want to "rent" parts of China because she didn't want other countries to "rent" (and thereby divide) China into 5-10 "special" regions. America was on its ...


3

Wrong assumption. Ming trading with SEA continued during the 14-16th century, trading Ming porcelain and other goods for spices, teak, ivory and turtle shell, with archaelogical finds in Malacca and Singapore. Indeed, the wukou pirates were also large Chinese merchant fleets which rebelled against the trade ban of 1540, which was started against the the ...


3

The Oracle Bones from the Shang Dynasty discovered in 1899 are still revealing plenty of new information and would be considered the earliest primary source of historical information on the Chinese culture. A terrific podcast on Chinese history is called The China History Podcast by Laslo Montgomery http://chinahistorypodcast.com/


3

The answer has to do with demographics based on agricultural productivity. The sedentary 'Han' Chinese could spread into the lands of their conquerors and out-breed and out-produce them. Thus, though the Mongols and Manchus and so on conquered 'Han' China, increasing proportions of their own homelands came to be ethnically Chinese. In the Manchu case, ...



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