Tag Info

Hot answers tagged

61

Despite common misconception, both Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula were ceded to the United Kingdom in perpetuity, via the Treaty of Nanking and the Convention of Peking, respectively. London was under no legal obligation to return them to China. However, most of the Crown Colony of Hong Kong actually consists of the New Territories. That was ...


56

They did. Depending on the preferred definition of "colonies", Chinese states in fact established innumerable colonies throughout history. Certainly the most common form was overland colonies created in conquered "barbarian" territories. This processes lasts up till today; Beijing's sinicisation and settlement policies in Tibet and Xinjiang are viewed with ...


31

The Chinese situation was fundamentally different from the Western European colonial empires. In fact it's rather more like Russia, who also managed to keep her Eurasian empire, or the United States, who acquire vast territories West of the Mississippi. In the case of China, those lands you refer to are mostly Sinkiang and Tibet. Most notably there is the ...


18

Because China was actually pretty far from India. For most of the past millennia, China and India were not "neighbouring countries" in any meaningful sense of the word. Most Chinese empires did not actually stretch all the way to the Indian subcontinent. It seems you're considering China and India based on their modern borders, but that is misleading: ...


16

Gibraltar was defensible, but Hong Kong was not. In the 1990s, the distance from the UK would have made Hong Hong impossible to defend. Also, Hong Kong is primarily occupied by Chinese, unlike Gibraltar, which is occupied by UK citizens, many of whom are soldiers. Gibraltar is a fortress, and it is relatively close to the UK and hence easily suppliable. ...


11

The basis for the 5,000 years figure comes from tracing Chinese "history" to the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. This figure includes over 1,000 years of legends. The next 1000 years are semi-legendary, being only somewhat corroborated by historical evidence. We start to have fragmentary historical records for a few centuries after that, but true ...


11

There's a PHD thesis and book chapter, both by Elizabeth McGuire on this matter. Soviet reaction was mixed, confused and ambiguous. The Cultural Revolution contained deeply anti-Soviet elements, and accused them of revisionism and deviation from Marxism-Leninism, but it came at a very inopportune time for USSR, which hampered any clear, official response. ...


10

China (at the time) was one of the "Big Four" Allies during World War II. (The "United Nations" originally meant the united, anti-Axis nations.) It's true that the "Big Three" were the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, but there were a number of much weaker, plausible "number four" states, including China, India, France, and Poland (the latter ...


9

It depends on the location and time. Using the number of chariots to denote the size of an army is most often a Spring and Autumn practice. During this period, the traditional, ritualistic formal system of the Chou Dynasty degraded and gave way to ad hoc reforms. Part of these reforms is changes in military organisation. The Chou dynasty prescribed ...


9

Trotskyism, and by extension Trotsky himself (and vice versa) was definitely denounced in early Communist Chinese propaganda. Whether or not he was a "hate figure" depends on what criteria you use for that nebulous phrase. Since the question declined to define it, I'll focus on the government's general attitude instead - though personally, I would say it was ...


9

I think there are these reasons: Around the time of its decline, Chinese philosophy was quasi-religious, and exclusionary. That is, Mohism was actively suppressed by regimes that adopted other philosophies, such as Confucianism. Some of its doctrines became obsolete Some of its doctrines were absorbed by the other philosophies Exclusion Mohism arose ...


8

Hideyoshi's reasons were not singular. A number of factors motivated his invasion of Korea. Although speculative hypothesis regarding his mental state is popular, domestic pressure for expansion coupled with seemingly-promising opportunities sufficiently explains the decision. TL;DR: Hideyoshi needed land and to keep his soldiers occupied. Korea was an easy ...


8

Yes, sort of. Illiterate people could "sign" using hand prints, which is a reasonably reliable biometric (totally anecdotal, but my university's experience was <10% false identification) that's a bit easier to authenticate by the naked eye. Prints of the finger (more than just the tip) could also be authenticated based on feature such as lengths between ...


8

Keep in mind that most of China was controlled by local warlords (or Imperial Japan) throughout much of this period. A lot of the time there wasn't much of a "under the Republican government" to speak of since they were effectively ruled by regional strongmen. However, generally speaking, women (particularly those from literati families) experienced a ...


8

I've argued elsewhere that it depends on cultural importance of blood lines. In particular, whether surnames arose as a mark of lineage, or for ease of identification. I believe that applies here as well: Cultures with strong views of family tend to adopt a collective representative name. In those without, surnames tend to come about for identifying ...


7

Tofu's origins are not conclusively known. The leading theory, however, is that it was invented during the Western Han Dynasty by Liu An, the king of Huai Nan. The earliest known reference to this is made in the Shiyi (a type of history book that is sort of an unofficial addendum to the official histories) written by a Liang Dynasty official, Xie Chuo ...


7

Well, to be factual, more like 4100 years+ of history is available for study. Xia Dynasty is dated back to cca 2100 BC - 1600 BC, numerous sites approves these dates. Before these days dates and historical records get more and more inaccurate and entering into the realm of legends. "5000 years" seems more like a generous rounding up, but it is not very far ...


7

Short Answer The Kidnapper is the United States/Roosevelt. The Hooligan is Britain/Churchill. The Bully was the Soviet Union/Stalin. For reference, this is the original passage from Chiang's diary: 聯合國中之四國,我為最弱,甚以弱者遇拐子、流氓與土霸為可危,也識知:人非自強,任何人亦不能為助。而國家之不求自強,則無論為敵為友,皆一汝為俎上之肉,可不戒懼? Of the four members of the United Nations, we are the weakest; it is ...


7

Because they were not "better" or "more effective". There are generally poor reports of the People's Liberation Army's effectiveness against Japan during World War II. - Elleman, Bruce A. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Routledge, 2005. Keep in mind that comparisons are difficult to make because the Nationalists[1] bore the brunt[2] of all ...


7

The short answer is because the Japanese government does not designate it as a public holiday. Officially, China does in fact celebrate New Year's Day (元旦) on the Western (Gregorian) 1 January. In contrast, the traditional lunar new year is a public holiday named Spring Festival (春节). Since the latter is a longer holiday, combined with ancient traditions, ...


6

@lins314159 is correct: the Eastern Zhou's fall began with the demise of the Western Zhou. Unlike its predecessor, the Eastern Zhou was never able to control its vassals. The precipitous drop in royal authority was caused by the collapse of the king's moral authority, his ineptitude, and the internal bickering of the court. This doomed the Eastern Zhou by ...


6

There are no specific rules, it is completely up to the founders. Many dynasties ultimately took their names from one of the ancient states of China. In any case, usually the actual choice were made in one of six ways: Reviving an Ancient Name: the dynasty began where an ancient state existed, and took its name from its ancient predecessor. Examples ...


6

I find interesting that many answers just belong to "armchair generals" that point only to the military power, logistics, *1 but forget to mention the issues that could lead to a war in the first place. Remember, war is the continuation of politics.... First of all, I would point the main issue would be noticing how these issues affect the internal ...


6

No. The Sino-Soviet split was motivated by fundamental differences in national interests, so there is little that a third party like the US could have done to influence it. Furthermore, US policy makers were wilfully ignorant of early signs of the split, which means that they did not exploit the situation until it had become abundantly clear, by the ...


6

Yes It's a variant of the belt claw technique of arming crossbows. Possible reasons include extended range due to a greater pull and presenting a smaller target profile for opposing crossbowmen. Bear in mind that military techniques varied throughout Chinese history, and that much of current theory is based on conjecture. Here's what we do know: Chinese ...


6

Notice how big China is? There's a reason for that; it's only a semantic difference between calling conquered territory a "colony" and simply part of your country. EDIT: Someone pointed out in comments that the term "colonize" means something different from "expanding borders". So I should clarify what I mean: yes the terms are different, but it's just a ...


6

The maximum extent of de facto Nationalist control in China was achieved around 1946. This is after the Second Sino-Japanese War ended, and before the Second Chinese Civil War began in earnest. At this point, the Nationalist Government had recovered all of its pre-war territories (at the height of the Nanking Decade), and made several major additions ...


5

This will be an unpopular view, but I would suggest the biggest blunder is a failure to exploit Japan's peace offers prior to 1938. Remember that Imperial Japan was wracked with internal conflicts and factionalism, and that its establishment historically viewed the Soviet Union as its primary enemy. When the war in China broke out, significant voices in the ...


5

Yes. Wikipedia maintains a list of "Wars and Anthropogenic Disasters by Death Toll." Here are the 19th century entries, with lower and upper estimates for death toll. Taiping Rebellion (20-100 million) Napoleonic Wars (3.5-7 million) Shaka's Conquests (1.5-2 million) Du Wenxiu Rebellion (0.8-1 million) American Civil War (0.67-0.85 million) Circassian ...


5

tl;dr: There are multiple reasons for Chiang to treat them different. They differed in their culpability, their readiness to make amends, and their connections. Connections Chang Hsueh-liang had an extremely valuable connection in the person of Soong May-ling, the wife of Chiang Kai-shek. The two had met in Shanghai in 1925, and kept up a life long ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible