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Short Answer The Kidnapper is the United States/Roosevelt. The Hooligan is Britain/Churchill. The Bully was the Soviet Union/Stalin. For reference, this is the original passage from Chiang's diary: 聯合國中之四國,我為最弱,甚以弱者遇拐子、流氓與土霸為可危,也識知:人非自強,任何人亦不能為助。而國家之不求自強,則無論為敵為友,皆一汝為俎上之肉,可不戒懼? Of the four members of the United Nations, we are the weakest; it is ...


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America was the kidnapper, Russia was the hooligan, and Britain was the bully. Chiang was most afraid of America, because its affluence made it easy to seduce or corrupt Chinese people, particularly "young" people. "Kidnapper" was arguably a bad translation; "Pied Piper" or even "hijacker" would have been better. Russia was the hooligan because of its many ...


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The Old Chinese character for fertilisers is the same as the word as fecal matter. Thus, we cannot assume that the fertilisers mentioned in Spring and Autumn texts were actually excrement. It is known that at least in some cases, they were referring to (presumably compost) weed or grass. The earliest explicit reference of using human waste as fertilisers ...


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The oldest extant Chinese historical inscription that I know of is the Nestorian Stele, which is dated 781 A.D. The earliest manuscript of the Records of the Grand Historian is allegedly a Song Dynasty (12th century block print), however, many such block prints have fraudulent prefaces because in China older books were more desirable and brought higher ...


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I would disagree with the other answers, which seem to suppose that some series of political events or other simple mechanic somehow miraculously led to industrialization in Japan, but not China. It's kind of asking why Japan produces higher quality economy cars than other countries. There is no easy answer. Japan and China have extremely different cultures ...


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Japan was under the threat of Western imperialism and modernization was a means of escaping humiliation. Feudalistic classes had also been abolished meaning that its people now had the opportunity to pursue their own talents. Rich merchants had saved large amounts of capital which would be invested industries


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There are no specific rules, it is completely up to the founders. Many dynasties ultimately took their names from one of the ancient states of China. In any case, usually the actual choice were made in one of six ways: Reviving an Ancient Name: the dynasty began where an ancient state existed, and took its name from its ancient predecessor. Examples ...


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The Christian (Nestorian) prelate Rabban Sauma, a native of Khan Baliq (modern Beijing), travelled to Italy and France in 1287-8 as a personal ambassador of the Great Khan Arghun to the Pope. His account of his travels is included in the biography of his pupil, the Patriarch Mar Yahbalaha. There is an English translation of the book in “The monks of Kublai ...


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There is during the Han Dynasty a record of Gan Ying's travel to Europe. This is recorded in the Hou Han Shu. In the ninth year 97 CE, Ban Chao sent his Subordinate Gan Ying, who probed as far as the Western Sea, which is either the Persian Gulf or the Black Sea and then returned. Former generations never reached these regions. The Shanjing gives ...


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Here's some food for thought: Sparta was just one of the many city states which were fighting in ancient Greece, before the inception of the Roman empire (think the Peloponneseian Wars). Their relatively equal strength prevented them from winning any extremely significant wars and yielding any great conquest, again, until the inception of the Roman empire. ...



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