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The passage means that if you want a fight, you should not meet the enemy on his side of a river which he needs to cross. The reason is fairly obvious. You should wait for him to cross first, and fight on your side of the river with his back to the water. If you win, you will destroy him. Better yet, you should wait until he has crossed the river with half ...


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In order to attack China, "European" powers had to send armies "halfway" around the world. That is a difficult way to "project" power even today, let alone in the 19th or early 20th centuries. It's fairly easy to send a "punitive" expedition, but much harder to conquer and control a country under those circumstances even with a large technological advantage. ...


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I thought it was because FDR demanded it. The USA was in fact fighting in China against Japan prior to Pearl Harbor. The Russians had a non aggression pact with Japan until the final days of World War 2. Since no one really wanted a United Nations anyways I'd call this one a "Presidential." Unlike Russia, Great Britain and France (to a very limited degree) ...


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Chairman Deng Xiaoping, de facto leader of China at the time and architect of the decision to use martial law, delivered an address to his military commanders June 9th, 1989 a few days after the protests had been crushed. In summation, this was not viewed as just a student anti-corruption protest, which he considered an acceptable grievance, but as a counter-...


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I know the question is asking about whether original 2100 year old bamboo versions of Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian exist or not. I liked @samuel-russell 's response about source material being tough for just a few decades. I'd like to note that there are copies of Sima Qian's work available online on the internet in Chinese. And there are also ...


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I like @Semaphore 's answer above. I'd like to clarify a little: What kind of history are you asking about? There is an important distinction between recorded history and pre-history. Generally speaking, when people speak about history, they are referring to recorded history, which requires the answer to be no, Chinese history is between 2,500 and 4,000 ...


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Put simply, the British planted the seeds for colonial control in the early 1800s, needed about 50 more years to fully exploit the Chinese people. The advent of the Soviet Union, WWII, the UN, and the end of colonialism in the 1960s precluded formal colonial control of china. It is noteworthy, however, that Tibet, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Manchuria, Mongolia, ...


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There was a quote attributed to Mao tse-tung "What if they killed 300 million of us? We would still have many people left." It's possible that he never said that in public. But it has become part of the Chinese "lore." Statements of the sort were released during the period leading up to the 1964 announcement of the Chinese atomic bomb, and reflected the ...


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If you're comparing states with significant amounts of representative action (historially very few) vs those ruled by oligarchies or monarchies, the answer is clearly that prosperity is nearly guaranteed during and after the periods of higher representation. In comparison, oligarchies and monarchies almost always lead to long periods of stagnation. At best,...



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