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19

I've combined the data in: List of largest cities throughout history World population estimates The winners are: Modern Tokyo (metropolitan area), home to 0.55% of the world's population 700 AD Chang'an, home to 0.44% of the world's population 200 AD Rome, home to 0.42% of the world's population 1 AD Rome, 400 AD Rome, and 1900 AD London follow, ...


12

The answer is threefold: 1) Transportation costs: agricultural societies had, since the beginning, been restricted by the amount of food one could produce locally. What 'freed' the British poor from having to work the land (please note I'm not arguing that this was in their favor) was the import of large amount of cheap food, as well as the materials to ...


9

There are many reasons for why cities seem to have an inordinate amount of churches for the population. The first of this is that some churches are never built as public churches. Many churches are built to show off how devout and wealthy you are. Kościół św. Wojciecha fits at best a 100 people standing up, and is clearly one of those churches. Also ...


7

The primary mechanisms that motivated the industrial revolution were automation and efficient utilization of natural resources to generate power to drive automation. There were certainly also social factors, but I'd prefer to focus primarily on the technical, since this seems to offer a clearer path to an answer. The Romans did harness power from gravity ...


6

This happening is known as The Great Hanoi Rat Massacre. It took place in 1902 in Hanoi, which was a French colony at that time. At the beginning action was a success, but as the bounty was granted for every rat's tail, soon the town was occupied by rats with cut out tails, that were left alive for breeding, and there were more and more rat farms in the ...


6

Wages. Labour was too cheap for an Industrial revolution. Early industrialisation must be profitable in order to be widely adopted and sustainable. With cheap labour the replacement of human labour with machines just isn't profitable. Research and development of early machines is expensive and slow, if there is no pay off, (trey making of money but cheaper ...


5

Madrid is the capital of Spain because King Philip II of Spain moved the court there. Where the court (and king) go, so does the government (in a monarchy). And he was arguably the most "dominant" Spanish king of "modern" times (Spain's navy declined after the failure of the Armada). No subsequent king of Spain saw fit to overturn Philip II's decision. ...


4

Remember that "necessity is the mother of invention". The Hawaiians had fresh water, fruits, vegetable, fish and meat and drinking & cutting utensils easily at hand and had no need for heating or warm clothing. They had so much leisure time that they did need means of diversion, so they invented the surf board and underwater swim goggles. They also ...


4

The design in question is from Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban and was typical of an age where gunpowder were used.


3

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Delhi#Early_history shows that the city was called Delhi (or Dilli) at least since the 12/13th century. Therefore, when Akbar assumed throne in 1556, the city would have been called Delhi. There are however more concrete sources than this simple extrapolation. Humayun Nama refers to the city as Delhi. You can read it ...


3

There are several antecedents you may want to take in consideration to approach an aswer for this question here: Queretero as such was re-founded on 1537 by the local Otomi leader "Conin" who was baptised by the spanish church and named afterwards "Fernando de Tapia". Using his friendship with the spanish caciques, he managed to secure the location for the ...


3

IMHO availability of cheap slave labour made mechanization unnecessary and scarcity of educated mechanics would make attempts of automation prohibitively expensive. We can see that not only in ancient times but also well into modern age in the places or industries where manual labour was much cheaper than the cost of automation and that stalled development ...


3

More people. Europe in the era of the Romans has an estimated population of 30 million people, which increased to 100 million people in 1800 and now to 700 million people. You do not produce goods just for fun. You must also have people who need to buy the products so you make a profit from producing goods. And if you invent machines to work for you, you ...


2

I'll pose two alternate answers: Nothingness and Isaac Newton. The industrial revolution occurred about 100 years after Newton. Without Newton or Leibniz (or someone of equal caliber), no calculus. Without calculus, no industrial revolution. Without a proper zero, no calculus. Neither the Greeks nor the Romans could have had an industrial revolution. Their ...


1

Because Greek intellectual giants failed to reproduce themselves, and thus died out. The following is a quote by Bertrand Russell: The industrial revolution might have taken place in antiquity if Greek intelligence had remained what it was at its best. To this it is customary to reply that slave labor, being cheap, removed the incentive to the ...


1

While 19 churches and chapels in a compact downtown core may seem like a lot in todays world, it is not so many in historical terms. A church that holds more than 1000 people is a large church, and a cathedral that holds more than 1500 people is a large cathedral (St. Paul's seats 3,500 and Westminster Abbey 2,000). In a society where everyone not ...


1

That country is Moldova. Here it is shown on the map:


1

Many capital cities are located at a confluence of available water, moderate climate, and transportation intersections. This would describe Paris, London, Rome, and Mexico City. Many capitals in the US, including many state capitals, are 'in the middle' of two powerful interest groups. The US capital is situated on the boundary between what were Slave and ...



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