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82

Europeans were introduced to at least one important disease from the Americas (syphilis), but far more Old World pathogens were introduced to the Americas than vice versa. There are several reasons for this imbalance. European agriculturalists lived in closer proximity to disease vectors than did most Native Americans. A number of important diseases ...


34

The Chinese situation was fundamentally different from the Western European colonial empires. In fact it's rather more like Russia, who also managed to keep her Eurasian empire, or the United States, who acquire vast territories West of the Mississippi. In the case of China, those lands you refer to are mostly Sinkiang and Tibet. Most notably there is the ...


28

Several good answers have already been suggested, but there are a few very important points that are worth mentioning: Native Americans were badly unprepared for the emergence of epidemic disease among their populations, both genetically and culturally. According to this article from 2002, there was a major genetic component to it: far less immune system ...


14

Unlike the earlier European wars of the 18th Century, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, from a British perspective, were not about acquiring or retaining territory. The purpose of war for the British Government was more of an ideological one, to prevent the spread of revolutionary ideas (especially to Britain) by restoring the French monarchy. ...


11

As the other answer and comments pointed out, all three Baltic states fought to resist the Soviet re-occupation after 1944. The Lithuanian effort were relatively more determined, costing the Lithuania about as many lives as the rest of the Baltic resistances. More importantly, however, during this period Lithuania was slower in its economic development ...


10

Historically, there weren't multiple Portuguese colonies in South America. There was just one. The Portuguese governed Brazil as a single unit since 1549, when the failed Captaincies were merged. This became the Viceroyalty of Brazil (1775), the Kingdom of Brazil (1815, still ruled by the Portuguese Crown), the independent Empire of Brazil (1822, when ...


10

Yes. In 1730 and again in 1789, Britain sent convict ships to Newfoundland. However, neither experiment was successful as they found that St. John's could not incorporate the scores of new residents. There were scattered instances of a handful of convicts being sent to Newfoundland for seven-year terms, but no other large-scale attempts to export convicts to ...


9

Certainly some diseases are of New World origin. The Old World had more diseases and more deadly diseases simply because the population was much greater and in certain place more concentrated. It is likely that more New World natives were killed by disease than by violence. However, this is just as true in the Old World: many more have died of disease than ...


8

One of the main differences between Morocco and other Maghreb countries controlled by France was the extensive settlements established there. European settlers began arriving immediately after the capture of Algeria in 1830. These settlers were encouraged by the colonial policy which makes it easy for them to massively "buy" Algerian lands at the expense ...


6

If your textbook indeed says this, it is evidently biased. First of all, there things (the Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, and European empires) belong to very different historical periods, and thus cannot be compared. The "world standards" of what is considered "benevolent" and "tolerant" are changing with time. For example, in antiquity and during most of ...


5

The reactions to the Treaty by the other powers were far from swift. On one hand, communication was slow and untrustworthy, on the other hand the New World was much smaller (as mentioned in another answer). England (still Catholic) suffered from the consequences of the Wars of the Roses (1455 - 1485) and had not yet the resources. France was suffering from ...


5

If you get sick and bring your disease to the place you are going (for instance, because you were on a long and exhausting journey), you are going to be ill at your destination. You may have carried the germ for a long time, since you are used to it, and it will only strike if/when you are weakened. If you get sick at your destination, it is not likely that ...


4

I am sure there were a lot of small colonies, but historically speaking nobody was interested in recording groups of Italians from one city moving to another city. The Italians had numerous colonies in the Greek islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and in Dalmatia. As an example, Pula, which has a very nice harbor has always had a very strong Italian ...


4

I'd say the syphilis was was quite a deadly illness contacted from the Native Americans. They were immune to it (wonder if they still are…). Although it is not 100 % historically proved that the syphilis originated from the New World, it started spreading like crazy after its discovery.


3

In 1494, there was no newspapers, no internet and no Netherlands. The "new world" at that time meant just a couple of islands about which population of England and France knew nothing. Neither they knew or cared about the treaty. So probably they did not react in any way on this treaty. Later, as more was discovered, and some countries expanded their ...


3

Lithuanian resistance was very determined, well-organized, and violent, and it persisted for almost a decade after re-occupation by Soviet Union in 1944. The "forest people" were hiding in the forests, gather info from largely pro-resistance population, and assassinate pro-Soviet functionaries of any level up to 1953. Some of the assassinations were based ...


3

The answer has to do with demographics based on agricultural productivity. The sedentary 'Han' Chinese could spread into the lands of their conquerors and out-breed and out-produce them. Thus, though the Mongols and Manchus and so on conquered 'Han' China, increasing proportions of their own homelands came to be ethnically Chinese. In the Manchu case, ...


2

The Europeans got no land but concessions from China, mostly in trade apart from signing over Hong Kong to the British which was about it. The europeans could not conduct a a land invasion into China proper, the defeats were mainly in naval engagements and even then the Qing managed to defeat the Portuguese, French and Dutch on several occasion so the idea ...


2

As someone who studied in Indonesia (former colony of Dutch) and Singapore (former colony of British), I can say very well the difference lies in the education investment made by the British. This simple slides (slide 21) shows very clearly the investment made by the British in their crown colony. The Dutch, however, did not do the same for its colonies ...


2

I found a paper(.doc) from the University of Liepzig that studied colonial revenues in the British Empire in some detail. Looking over their data, it seems that nearly all parts of the empire were experiencing increasing revenues clear to the end (well..at least until WWII). However, what you do see at the end is that the revenue per capita actually ...


2

That book Hugo Chávez gifted Barack Obama (Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, by Eduardo Galeano) explains part of it. It starts with the differences between the Iberian (Portuguese and Spanish) Colonization versus English/British Colonization on North America. As the idea of Portugal and Spain was to extract the most ...


2

There were no actual "boundaries" as far as I had been able to research; the Spaniards relocated the natives, not into a closed area but scattering them in some 600 reducciones all around the Viceroyalty, and most of the time the natives appear to have been resettled not excessively far from their original villages, while local chiefs appear to have had a ...


2

In 1497 John Cabot (aka Giovanni Caboto) claimed the Grand Banks off Newfoundland for England in the name of Henry VII. In 1524 I of France commissioned Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the coast of North America from Florida to the St. Lawrence. Ten years later, in 1534, Francis commissioned Jacques Cartier to explore the coast of Newfoundland and the St. ...


1

There is a famous quote attributed to Francis I of France: "The sun shines on me just as on the other: and I should like to see the clause in Adam's will that cuts me out of my share in the New World." See, e.g., Arciniega, Caribbean Sea of the New World.


1

First, I would say that Lithuania was less colonized by the Soviet Union, meaning that we are only making a comparison with the other two. First, Lithuania is less accessible than the other two. It has less coastline than Latvia, and much less coastline than Estonia (before World war II, most of the Soviet Baltic fleet was stationed at Talinn). Also, ...


1

Maybe situation in Bohemia after Thirty years war ? Expulsion of protestant elities (together with confiscation of their properties) by Austrian Emperor ? And grating their properties to catholic aristocracy ?


1

It is difficult to give a definitive answer to such question. I can only tell you my experience. The university where I teach (in the US) has a lot of Indian students, and I discussed these questions with them. Of course they were born after the liberation. Many of them recognize the substantial contribution that the British made in the development of India. ...


1

One of the biggest considerations, although hypothetical and not talked about, is simply the water. A great number of diseases and plauges during this era were due to waterborne pathogens. Europeans rarely drank plain water during the period, and you were more likely to find them drinking beer, wine, and mead just for this reason. It was commonly diluted ...


1

From WIKI - Basically, the English took the good ones, and kept them from recapturing the ones riven by slave revolt (Haiti). Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution, with Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, but not nearly as much as had been hoped for ...


1

The guy above is correct. 1) Only idiots would try to conquer the entire China. It was extremely hard to maintain. For example, the Mongols had to chase the last Song emperor all the way down to the Guangdong China by a massive naval fleet. The Qing dynasty had to constantly watch out for possible secessions in western China like Tibet and Xinjiang. Do you ...



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