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12

This is a good question that must come to many people's minds when they see the two very similarly sized (Taiwan only slightly larger) islands. The similarities are a even more numerous than the visual. They were both long at the margins of power in Chinese empires, had significant minorities who vigorously defended their autonomy (in Hainan it was the ...


10

First, there was hardly such thing as "German monarchs": before Bismarck Germany was fractured into a bunch of small states, each with its own monarch. True, they were formally united into "Holy Roman Empire of German People", but, as Voltaire pointed out, "Holy Roman Empire is neither Holy nor Roman nor Empire". And when Bismarck finally united Germany it ...


10

Although this question probably can't be resolved without years of comparative study, a quick indication of the answer can be done by looking at the current GDP of the countries as a reasonable measure of "stability and success". The cases are also very different between different continents and times, as colonization changed a lot during the period. ...


8

There are three big questions there, with the second, on profitability of the colonies, a tricky one which can plunge us into discussion and the last, on why states bother, quite broad. Others may like to weigh in on them and I'll focus on your first part, "I have been told by many acquaintances that the loss of the thirteen colonies actually BENEFITED the ...


7

In case of India: From 1773 to 1858, the British administrative head in India was called Governor General and was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. After the 1857 Uprising, the government of India was transferred from the East India Company to the Crown. And "Viceroy" was added to the title of the ...


7

Te VOC was not interested in control of people or land, but trade. For example nutmeg; the dutch burned every bit of it except on an island of 1 square km so they could control all of it. IIRC the value would go from 1 in Indonesia to 50000 in Amsterdam. The VOC was the single most profitable company in history (according to my prof.). A journey would take a ...


6

To fill out JK's answer: the VOC directly controlled very little except the shipping routes to Amsterdam (and a few other Dutch ports, but the majority of goods arrived at Amsterdam). Indirectly, through deals and influence at the local courts of the rulers of the islands, they controlled far more. By supplying those rulers with weapons, advisors, European ...


6

Where to start? Starting from the forced exchange of population between Greece and Turkey in 1923, you will find no shortage of examples, some of truly unbelievable scale. Among the most prominent ones are population transfer and Russian settlements in the former USSR (considering the brutality of the regime, I think it is beyond dispute that these satisfy ...


5

I'm Cuban (1984- leave cuba in 2009), and I'll try to be the most unbiased possible. In Cuba exist two currencies the CUP AND CUC Local citizens are paid in CUP. 24 CUP = 1 CUC 1 CUC = 1.10 USD The avg salary is 500 CUP ~ 20 USD by month The health system and all kind of Education include elemental, Bachelor, Master, etc are free. 1/2 Kg (1 ...


5

A viceroy is a "vice-king" (roi is French for king). Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II were/are female "kings," (not queens in the usual sense of wife of a king). Dominions held in the name of the king or queen (e.g. Queen Victoria was Empress of India) would be ruled by "Viceroys." Other colonies were held in the name of Britain, rather than the ruler. ...


5

After the voyages of Columbus, who sailed for Spain, the Portuguese and Spanish divided up the new world in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). The later pattern of colonization followed this treaty in general outline. Your question has an incorrect assumption, that the Portuguese were only traders. They had a global empire that included Brazil, islands in ...


4

People from what is modern day Indonesia were visiting northern Australia to collect and process trepang (sea-cucumber or sea slug) for centuries before European settlement. These people are generally referred to as Macassan (or Makassan). The first European to circumnavigate Australia, Matthew Flinders, encountered Macassans processing trepang. ...


4

There are several reasons for the decolonisation of Africa in the post WW2 world - some of them indicate a decision to withdraw rather than a failure to continue. These reasons are in no particular order and are what I consider to be major contributing factors - for example it's also likely that desire for social reform within the UK itself was another ...


4

Germany was't even a unified country until 1871, which is to say that until that time, it had more to worry about its own internal problems, than with colonies. By 1871, the Monroe Doctrine had made the Americans off-limits, and most of South and East Asia (India, Indochina, and modern Indonesia) was spoken for by the English, French, and Dutch ...


4

I believe the answer can be distilled to Cultural; Geographical; and Historical and Logistical reasons: Brazil and the Guyana's are separate countries as a legacy of being colonized by the British, Dutch, French and Portuguese respectively instead of Spain. The spine of the Andes is an extremely formidable obstacle that divides the continent into a western ...


3

To be honest, I don't know the chances, but here are the following facts, hopefully they give good picture on topic: The continent was spotted by various people before James Cook - collected evidences are from the related wikipedia page's sources: K.G. McIntyre (1977) The Secret Discovery of Australia; Portuguese discoveries 200 years before Captain Cook. ...


3

South America was initially divided into the Spanish and Portuguese speaking parts by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The Portuguese part is Brazil, the Spanish part consists of most of the rest of South America. The Spanish part was subdivided into New Granada (north), Peru (center), and La Plata (south). The Andes Mountains subdivided each of these parts; ...


3

With respect to Britain, there was an understanding between Churchill and Roosevelt that the UK would free it's colonies after the war. Atlantic Charter Specific terms described in this article are 'A key American aim was to force a change of British policy in regard to its Empire. America realized the precarious position of Britain, reliant as she was on ...


3

It could well be that Annobon, being farther out from the two Bights, has better sailing conditions - more access to trade winds, less likely for fleets to be caught by a contrary wind against the two shores. Thus it is more convenient as a base for ships travelling on to the far east via Africa.


3

The book is well supported and well regarded. I want to add a caveat to the above answer, since the Wikipedia page doesn't emphasize this point. He is writing from a viewpoint of environmental determinism. This area of academics is having a bit of a revival right now, but environmental determinism has long been used to explain European (and according to ...


3

Spivak's term "epistemic violence" means the infliction of harm against subjects though discourse. Spivak's understanding of discourse comes from Foucault. In the work of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes “an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements (énoncés)” An enouncement ...


2

There is no formal difference. In practice the Lieutenant Governors of the Canadian Provinces and the Governors of the Australian States are viceroys, although the term is not used. Wikipedia From these two sources I infer that There isn't a formal definition of either term (although if I had access to DeBrett's, I might consult that.) It may be ...


2

The effects of the Cuban revolution has been wholly negative. Not only was it immediately highly negative for the economy, as any civil war is, the planned economy instigated by the communist government in Cuba has, as all planned economy, stifled the Cuban economy and doomed the country to poverty. During the early 20th century Cuba was a prosperous ...


2

From "The Modern Traveller", published 1898: I never shall forget the way That Blood upon this awful day Preserved us all from death. He stood upon a little mound, Cast his lethargic eyes around, And said beneath his breath : "Whatever happens we have got The Maxim Gun, and they have not." He marked them in their rude advance, He hushed their ...


2

While the UK 'lost' the 13 colonies, it still 'possessed' Canada. Therefore it still had trade opportunities and defense commitments in North America, and similar arrangements in Australia and New Zealand. The character of these in particular is that they were sparsely populated by aboriginals, they were at a significant distance from the 'mother country', ...


2

Colonization: (of a country or its citizens) send a group of settlers to (a place) and establish political control over it. I would argue that in fact Brandenburg-Prussia engaged very successfully in the colonization of Western Pomerania (1653); Magdeburg (1680); Eastern Pomerania (1720); Silesia (1740); Pomerelia & West Prussia(1772-1793); ...


2

There is in fact a small PDF available online which attempts to answer this question through detailed study of a small area of the South Pacific. The islands of Vanuatu were administered jointly by the British and French. The author finds that "political indicators are in favor of British administration, but economic indicators are in favor of French ...


2

Why ignore Australia, New Zealand & the United States - are they are not all former colonies of Great Britain? The United States does particularly well, being the country with the highest GDP. They gained their independence in 1789, that is two centuries ago. One may suppose, that most of the former colonial nations that aren't doing so well are still ...


2

This Wikipedia article shows the results of the 1930 Dutch East Indies census (in the Social History section), listing 240,417 Europeans out of a total population of over 60.7MM. Calculating this as 0.4% European (with an additional 2.2%, or 1.35MM, Chinese and other foreign orientals), the European population was outnumbered 250-1 and the non-indigenous ...


2

I can think of several examples which are big enough, recent enough and well known enough not to be disputed. In 1938 the Germans occupied Czechoslovakia, and civilians were free to settle there under the "Lebensraum" (breathing room) philosophy. The occupation was (at first) of an area populated mostly by ethnic Germans, but legally at least that doesn't ...



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