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14

Unlike the earlier European wars of the 18th Century, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, from a British perspective, were not about acquiring or retaining territory. The purpose of war for the British Government was more of an ideological one, to prevent the spread of revolutionary ideas (especially to Britain) by restoring the French monarchy. ...


10

Historically, there weren't multiple Portuguese colonies in South America. There was just one. The Portuguese governed Brazil as a single unit since 1549, when the failed Captaincies were merged. This became the Viceroyalty of Brazil (1775), the Kingdom of Brazil (1815, still ruled by the Portuguese Crown), the independent Empire of Brazil (1822, when ...


10

Yes. In 1730 and again in 1789, Britain sent convict ships to Newfoundland. However, neither experiment was successful as they found that St. John's could not incorporate the scores of new residents. There were scattered instances of a handful of convicts being sent to Newfoundland for seven-year terms, but no other large-scale attempts to export convicts to ...


8

One of the main differences between Morocco and other Maghreb countries controlled by France was the extensive settlements established there. European settlers began arriving immediately after the capture of Algeria in 1830. These settlers were encouraged by the colonial policy which makes it easy for them to massively "buy" Algerian lands at the expense ...


6

If your textbook indeed says this, it is evidently biased. First of all, there things (the Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, and European empires) belong to very different historical periods, and thus cannot be compared. The "world standards" of what is considered "benevolent" and "tolerant" are changing with time. For example, in antiquity and during most of ...


5

The reactions to the Treaty by the other powers were far from swift. On one hand, communication was slow and untrustworthy, on the other hand the New World was much smaller (as mentioned in another answer). England (still Catholic) suffered from the consequences of the Wars of the Roses (1455 - 1485) and had not yet the resources. France was suffering from ...


5

Afro Carribeans: Afro-Caribbeans are Caribbean people who trace their heritage to Sub-Saharan Africa [...] Between the 16th and 19th centuries, European-led triangular trade brought African people to work as slaves in the Caribbean on various plantations. These Afro Carribeans are descendants of slaves. The slaves hady had no rights and a master of a ...


4

It's most probably about the Boston Massacre, in which five people were killed.


3

'In perils oft': romantic biographies illustrative of the adventurous life (1886) provides three versions of Gordon's death, pp. 533-534. These are: He was slain by gunfire while on his way to the Austrian consulate He was killed on the courtyard steps of the governors palace He was shot while in his study, reading his Bible All three stories are told ...


3

In 1494, there was no newspapers, no internet and no Netherlands. The "new world" at that time meant just a couple of islands about which population of England and France knew nothing. Neither they knew or cared about the treaty. So probably they did not react in any way on this treaty. Later, as more was discovered, and some countries expanded their ...


2

This newspaper clipping from 1895 gives more information to the whereabouts of the Europeans in Khartoum. It states that "in 1887, the prisoners include four Italian sisters, 2 priests and 2 laymen".


2

That book Hugo Chávez gifted Barack Obama (Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, by Eduardo Galeano) explains part of it. It starts with the differences between the Iberian (Portuguese and Spanish) Colonization versus English/British Colonization on North America. As the idea of Portugal and Spain was to extract the most ...


2

As an aside, everyone usually talks about the might of the Spanish Empire, while overlooking the fact that 98% of Spain's colonies were in the Americas, and thus their empire was largely limited to 1/3 of the western hemisphere. By contrast, the Portuguese empire was far more widespread geographically, in that Portugal had colonies all over the world. This ...


2

In 1497 John Cabot (aka Giovanni Caboto) claimed the Grand Banks off Newfoundland for England in the name of Henry VII. In 1524 I of France commissioned Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the coast of North America from Florida to the St. Lawrence. Ten years later, in 1534, Francis commissioned Jacques Cartier to explore the coast of Newfoundland and the St. ...


1

Annihilated? British administration was beneficial for the Indian economy. After the British left, the Indian economy declined very significantly. In 1900, India was ranked the #36 country in the world by GDP per capita. Today, it is ranked #135, right below Nigeria. To put that in perspective: if India were #36 today, it would be comparable to Israel (#35)...


1

An important factor is that the Europeans went to America to find a new undiscovered land and settle there. So they fought with the natives to conquer the land. It was never a genocide but natives were killed by the colonists who occupied their lands. But in contrast India was well known to Europeans since the time of Alexander. The Europeans came to India ...


1

There is a famous quote attributed to Francis I of France: "The sun shines on me just as on the other: and I should like to see the clause in Adam's will that cuts me out of my share in the New World." See, e.g., Arciniega, Caribbean Sea of the New World.


1

Early Japan had close relations with early Korea. In eras before the dawn of really good and accurate history, those relations may have involved at least one Korean conquest of at least some parts of Japan and/or at least one Japanese conquest or colonization or overlordship over at least one part of Korea. Naturally, nationalistic Korean and Japanese ...


1

I hope, On 2nd August 1858 the Parliament passed a bill to take over the administration of India from the East Indian Company by the British Crown. The title of Viceroy was introduced for the supreme representation of the British Government in India. The provision of this bill called for the dissolution of the British East India Company that was ruling ...


1

Put simply, the British planted the seeds for colonial control in the early 1800s, needed about 50 more years to fully exploit the Chinese people. The advent of the Soviet Union, WWII, the UN, and the end of colonialism in the 1960s precluded formal colonial control of china. It is noteworthy, however, that Tibet, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Manchuria, Mongolia, ...


1

The great difference are the political regime. In order to stablish the industrial revolution the country need a regime favourable to make it. Spain and Portuguese until the Second half of XIX hadnt a parlamentary and liberal regime, in contrast, to UK (1715), France (1815) and Germany (1812). For Germany and France, Napoleon, change their regime while UK ...



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