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12

Because it didn't have a choice: it had neither the will to defy the British Government, nor the ability to do so. Remember corporations are not people; its shareholders and directors were. In this case, most of them were British, owning properties and with aspirations in Britain. That alone made resisting a duly constituted Act of Parliament by force ...


11

Kind of, but not as such. The closest to what you're probably thinking of is the nihonjin-machi that began to form in the Pacific around the same time as Europe's Renaissance. These were primarily mercantile communities, but later also housed significant numbers of samurais, Christians and other exiles from Japan. None of them survived after the early modern ...


9

Where to start? Starting from the forced exchange of population between Greece and Turkey in 1923, you will find no shortage of examples, some of truly unbelievable scale. Among the most prominent ones are population transfer and Russian settlements in the former USSR (considering the brutality of the regime, I think it is beyond dispute that these satisfy ...


7

This is a huge question, one that cannot possibly be covered entirely in a single answer on a website. However, the three points you listed in your question can be addressed, and I've tried to do so below. Please keep in mind that even these could each have whole books written about them, so I'm aiming for the broad strokes here, just to give you an idea ...


6

I can think of several examples which are big enough, recent enough and well known enough not to be disputed. In 1938 the Germans occupied Czechoslovakia, and civilians were free to settle there under the "Lebensraum" (breathing room) philosophy. The occupation was (at first) of an area populated mostly by ethnic Germans, but legally at least that doesn't ...


6

I'm Cuban (1984- leave cuba in 2009), and I'll try to be the most unbiased possible. In Cuba exist two currencies the CUP AND CUC Local citizens are paid in CUP. 24 CUP = 1 CUC 1 CUC = 1.10 USD The avg salary is 500 CUP ~ 20 USD by month The health system and all kind of Education include elemental, Bachelor, Master, etc are free. 1/2 Kg (1 ...


5

The book is well supported and well regarded. I want to add a caveat to the above answer, since the Wikipedia page doesn't emphasize this point. He is writing from a viewpoint of environmental determinism. This area of academics is having a bit of a revival right now, but environmental determinism has long been used to explain European (and according to ...


5

After the voyages of Columbus, who sailed for Spain, the Portuguese and Spanish divided up the new world in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). The later pattern of colonization followed this treaty in general outline. Your question has an incorrect assumption, that the Portuguese were only traders. They had a global empire that included Brazil, islands in ...


5

Although the Convention of 1818 and the subsequent 1846 Oregon Treaty might be considered here, these both predate the establishment of a true Canadian Government. Hence I think the following Acts and acts of the post-1867 Government and people of Canada best answer the question: Purchase of Rupert's Land in 1869 from the Hudson's Bay Company and the ...


4

Neither of them were really part of India to begin with. Sri Lanka was formerly the British Crown Colony of Ceylon, which grew out of an earlier Dutch colony. In 1795, during the Napoleonic Wars, Britain took over control of Sri Lanka's coastlines from the Dutch Republic. The British East India Company was entrusted to administer the area, but it was ...


4

This is kind of a broad question, but I think you should examine what people said about coffee in the early history of the beverage. "...it drove away fatigue and lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and vigour." --Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri, 1587, quoted in The World of Caffeine by Bennett Alan Weinberg, Bonnie K. Bealer. "A ...


4

Semaphore's hypothesis was right. I found interesting resource which tells us that islands actually had been considered terra nullius till 1926. Until the year 1926 the islands had been considered "Terra Nullius", or other words, ''No Man's Land". However, following practices of Canada, the Soviet Union claimed that all land in the sector between ...


3

The population of India during the British Raj days was first counted during the census of 1871. Prior to this a full census and data on British subjects were not available. The 1891 census also did a linguistic division, but nothing such as "British Subjects". But people who spoke English as a mother tongue returned 238,409. The total Number of people with ...


3

Wiki: The 1861 Census had revealed that the English population in India was 125,945. Of these only about 41,862 were civilians as compared with about 84,083 European officers and men of the Army.[47] In 1880, the standing Indian Army consisted of 66,000 British soldiers, 130,000 Natives, and 350,000 soldiers in the princely armies. Indian economy ...


3

Spivak's term "epistemic violence" means the infliction of harm against subjects though discourse. Spivak's understanding of discourse comes from Foucault. In the work of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes “an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements (énoncés)” An enouncement ...


3

It could well be that Annobon, being farther out from the two Bights, has better sailing conditions - more access to trade winds, less likely for fleets to be caught by a contrary wind against the two shores. Thus it is more convenient as a base for ships travelling on to the far east via Africa.


3

How about in 1948 when India invaded Hyderabad and conquered it? Any Indians who since moved to the area are also occupying settlers.


3

The book is well written and well explained; Jared Diamond actually takes real pain to explain that his theories are not implacable and must not be taken as a 100% reliable blueprint for predicting success or failure of any civilization (even if we could actually define what "failure" means for a civilization). The book, though, attracted criticism because ...


3

From "The Modern Traveller", published 1898: I never shall forget the way That Blood upon this awful day Preserved us all from death. He stood upon a little mound, Cast his lethargic eyes around, And said beneath his breath : "Whatever happens we have got The Maxim Gun, and they have not." He marked them in their rude advance, He hushed their ...


3

In the colonial era, sugar then was comparable to oil now - it was an extremely valuable commodity, and countries sought to produce as much of it as possible. The Guianas had a suitable climate for growing sugar and had been left unsettled by the Spanish/Portuguese, so it was not surprising that they would be eventually conquered by other European powers. ...


3

There were multiple reasons why Algeria was so important to French: Algeria was French military colony since 1834. and, by the constitution of 1848 to be an integral part of French territory and divided into three French departments (Algiers, Oran and Constantine). Also, as Tom said, Algeria was backdoor of France and it was very possible route to invade ...


3

The effects of the Cuban revolution has been wholly negative. Not only was it immediately highly negative for the economy, as any civil war is, the planned economy instigated by the communist government in Cuba has, as all planned economy, stifled the Cuban economy and doomed the country to poverty. During the early 20th century Cuba was a prosperous ...


2

You are conflating immigrants from different time periods. The North American colonies were established over a period of 150 years from approximately 1620 to 1770. During that time many different kinds of immigration occurred. First of all, criminals were not allowed to immigrate normally. You had to be of good character to get sponsored to go to the ...


2

Crimea (occupied by Russia from Crimean tatars, with tatars forcibly deported and Russians moved in). Later re-occupied in 2014, with both Ukrainians and Crimean tatars being discriminated against (the leader of Crimean tatars was exiled). Königsberg, which USSR occupied, de-germanized, and turned into Russian-majority Калинингра́д.


2

One example is the Russian population in Kazakhstan. (The USSR transferred large populations around, so this is probably not the only example.) Settlement started in the 19th century, but increased in the 20th century. According to Wikipedia, by 1917, 30% of the population was Russian. Many more Russians arrived in the years 1953-1965,during the ...


2

Bankers, businessmen, landowners, nobles and princes all gave active support to the British. Indigenous collaborators and "traitors" such as Mir Jafar were key elements the British exploited to their own advantage. They promoted and demoted officials and bureaucrats to suit their ends. These are well recorded- the active support by the Jagat Seths and other ...


2

Julian Jackson's account of France in the 1930s and 1940s France: The Dark Years shows how France's African empire was seen as compensation for the decline in French prestige and influence in Europe during this period. Algeria was the most important element in this project because of proximity to France, long historical association, and larger settler ...


2

The English (later British) East India Company did act politically in London: it had more political power when it was rich and paying or lending money to the government in London than when the situation was reversed. Its lobby was for a trade monopoly with India and freedom to take commercial and territorial decisions; its opponents wanted trade ...


2

I totally and completely disagree with this premise. 1) The Sahara desert was almost completely uninhabited a couple thousand years ago, as the land was dry and arid, making it a poor agricultural location. 2) The dense rainforests made habitation in western and central africa extremely difficult until the arrival of the Bantu peoples, and they were groups ...


1

During this time, the Native Americans traded mainly furs and sometimes food. In exchange, the Europeans gave them items like horses, alcohol, and manufactured goods such as guns, metal cooking utensils, and cloth. The Indians made good use of the trade goods they received, specifically the axes, knives, and guns. They had quite a good source of income for ...



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