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The communications between national leaders are normally conducted through the embassies. I.e., Churchill would send a Typex-encrypted telegram to the British Embassy in Washington, DC, it is decrypted there, and delivered in person to the White House. Similarly, Roosevelt would send a SIGABA-encrypted message to the US Embassy in London, it is decrypted ...


6

I think it's safe to conclude that no fighter plane radios were encrypted, due to requiring extremely bulky equipment at the time. Communication between enemy fighters was theoretically possible, since all you need to do is tune in to the enemy's frequency, but most planes could only use a very limited set of preset frequencies. Of course this does mean ...


5

Encryption can very well be done on quite small portable devices, also during WWII. The famous German Enigma machine was about as large as a type-writer, and that was one of the most advanced and complex encryption of the time. Smaller machines with simpler encryption also existed. However, encrypted communications required a separate radio person who does ...


2

First of all, your assumption that slaves in Rome addressed their master as "domine" is not true. The language used in the household was completely different than the "silver" Latin you read in Cicero or Seneca. Vernacular Latin had large amounts of Greek slang in it and the lower in the class the person, the more slangy it got. Words like kurios and ...


2

I think Radio was more revolutionary - is was the first free (advertiser-paid) real time one-to-many not requiring any skills from the recipient (illiterates can listen) not requiring recipient to withdraw form menial tasks (one can work on a sewing machine while listening - TV actually does not have this feature!) information distribution system. The ...


2

The object in question is a blank spool of recording tape for a multiplex photographic recording system. Such systems were commonly used not only at Sayville, but at all transatlantic radio receiving stations. The way the systems worked is that a photographically sensitive tape was fed into a galvanometrically modulated exposer and then immediately ...


1

Besides official or secret agent movement of news and papers, it was routine for soldiers on picket duty to swap newspapers and reading material along with coffee and tobacco when armies were in contact. The desire for different reading material was very strong.


1

As soon as the death was published in northern newspapers it would have become available to the south. For an important event, like Lincoln's assassination, a man would have used a horse and carried a newspaper right to Richmond, which is about 100 miles away from Washington DC, where the assassination occurred. Since the first reports were published on the ...


1

Usually a translator would be found. People like Marco Polo who lived in foreign locations learned the local language, Mongolian in the case of the Yuan empire. Note that Mongolian was spoken widely in Central Asia at that time, so Marco Polo could have started learning it even before he reached Cathay.


1

Here's an excerpt from Kadin2048's answer to this question at ask.metafilter.com, making a reasonable summation if we consider the wire recording (Wiki) techniques that were known at the time: What I think is more likely, is that the tape was just colored in dark and light patches or stripes, and that it was decoded manually. As the tape went through the ...


1

In general, a commoner would address a gentleman as "Monsieur" and a lady as "Madame". Among nobility the practice would be the same, although the king is addressed as "sire". If a person was a servant of someone else they may use a special term of subservience. For example, in the play Le Cid (1637) by Corneille, when the page addresses his mistress he ...



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