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15

The communications between national leaders are normally conducted through the embassies. I.e., Churchill would send a Typex-encrypted telegram to the British Embassy in Washington, DC, it is decrypted there, and delivered in person to the White House. Similarly, Roosevelt would send a SIGABA-encrypted message to the US Embassy in London, it is decrypted ...


15

The Enigma machines and the breaking of the Enigma code were not the main determinants of the outcome of World War II, but did contribute to the outcome. There were only a few types of Enigma machines, so they had to be capable of using different encryption keys. If machines used the same encryption key for message after message, the encryption would be ...


6

Yes, they do allow multiple keys. Typically they had a new key every day. See this Wikipedia article: Though Enigma had some cryptographic weaknesses, in practice it was German procedural flaws, operator mistakes, laziness, failure to systematically introduce changes in encipherment procedures, and Allied capture of key tables and hardware that, during ...


6

"Allies" capturing Engima machines (what you really mean was British navy, who then in Hollywood were magically transformed into US navy) was really of no importance. What was important was capturing code books. The wiring of the Enigma machine was known since the 1930s, when Polish mathematicians managed to reconstruct it from very limited information. ...


6

I think it's safe to conclude that no fighter plane radios were encrypted, due to requiring extremely bulky equipment at the time. Communication between enemy fighters was theoretically possible, since all you need to do is tune in to the enemy's frequency, but most planes could only use a very limited set of preset frequencies. Of course this does mean ...


5

Encryption can very well be done on quite small portable devices, also during WWII. The famous German Enigma machine was about as large as a type-writer, and that was one of the most advanced and complex encryption of the time. Smaller machines with simpler encryption also existed. However, encrypted communications required a separate radio person who does ...


2

First of all, your assumption that slaves in Rome addressed their master as "domine" is not true. The language used in the household was completely different than the "silver" Latin you read in Cicero or Seneca. Vernacular Latin had large amounts of Greek slang in it and the lower in the class the person, the more slangy it got. Words like kurios and ...


2

I think Radio was more revolutionary - is was the first free (advertiser-paid) real time one-to-many not requiring any skills from the recipient (illiterates can listen) not requiring recipient to withdraw form menial tasks (one can work on a sewing machine while listening - TV actually does not have this feature!) information distribution system. The ...


1

Besides official or secret agent movement of news and papers, it was routine for soldiers on picket duty to swap newspapers and reading material along with coffee and tobacco when armies were in contact. The desire for different reading material was very strong.


1

As soon as the death was published in northern newspapers it would have become available to the south. For an important event, like Lincoln's assassination, a man would have used a horse and carried a newspaper right to Richmond, which is about 100 miles away from Washington DC, where the assassination occurred. Since the first reports were published on the ...


1

Usually a translator would be found. People like Marco Polo who lived in foreign locations learned the local language, Mongolian in the case of the Yuan empire. Note that Mongolian was spoken widely in Central Asia at that time, so Marco Polo could have started learning it even before he reached Cathay.


1

The first Enigma machine to come to the notice of Germany's foes was in Poland, around 1928. Polish customs (and their intelligence service) were suspicious of the German embassy's unseemly desire to get a certain package out of Customs on a Saturday. The Poles spent the weekend copying the manuals and examining the mechanism, and then delivered it in the ...


1

In general, a commoner would address a gentleman as "Monsieur" and a lady as "Madame". Among nobility the practice would be the same, although the king is addressed as "sire". If a person was a servant of someone else they may use a special term of subservience. For example, in the play Le Cid (1637) by Corneille, when the page addresses his mistress he ...



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