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14

Please don't use CPI. CPI only measures consumption bundles for wage workers. If you want to measure inflation you need to ask why you're equating the value of money over time. www.measuringworth.com goes into this, in great detail, with multiple theoretical papers and multiple measuring systems for US inflation. what amount of modern currency would ...


14

No! The Cold War was the standoff between the Capitalistic USA and Communistic USSR. Communism lost. What remains is corruption within the former communist country (Russia). The War in Ossetia was over oil (a distinctly capitalistic move) not ideology (spreading Communism) as it would have been were the Cold War still ongoing.


13

Yes, all guillotines have been dismounted. Public executions are no longer popular, and even the memory of them is not something most people want to face. While executions were originally public, they gradually became less so: execution times changed over the 19th century to happen in the dead of the night, then at dawn; in 1939 (a lot later than in most ...


13

There are plenty of industrial uses for steam engines, mostly for generating electricity. Any coal-fueled power station is a steam engine, or more likely a set of them. The only big change in technology is that converting the steam's expansion energy to kinetic energy is now done using a steam turbine and not a piston engine. Since the question specifically ...


12

Las Vegas was not founded in a particularly random desert. It was founded on a meadow (las vegas is Spanish for "the meadows") watered by the nearby Big Springs, or Las Vegas Springs. As such it was a watering spot on the Old Spanish Trail. After the Civil War, O.D. Gass set up the first permanent white settlement there. Other settlers followed, and it was ...


12

In 1974 the PLO adopted what is called "The Ten Point Program". It is a program that outlines a phased plan for liberating all of Palestine. Liberating here means liberating it from Israeli rule. Obviously once all of Palestine has been liberated that means there is no Israel at all. If we take this at face value, that means that any compromise you make ...


8

According to this paper from Penn's Population Studies Center, perhaps to go somewhere safer? But it is not difficult to find conditions equivalent to combat in American cities. In Philadelphia, the death rate for black males aged 20-34 in 2002 was 4.37/1000, 11% higher than for troops in Iraq. A slight majority of the deaths were from homicide ...


8

The Wahhabi ideology started as a revivalist movement (return to the roots) and quickly became strongly conservative, emphasizing intolerance not just to other religions, but to other variants of Islam. This provides a tool for dealing with the dissenters (accuse them of deviations from the party line). Also, the emphasis on the early "Rightly Guided ...


8

Keep in mind that most of China was controlled by local warlords (or Imperial Japan) throughout much of this period. A lot of the time there wasn't much of a "under the Republican government" to speak of since they were effectively ruled by regional strongmen. However, generally speaking, women (particularly those from literati families) experienced a ...


7

There are many techniques used by military recruiters. You can find a list on Wikipedia. To sum up: There are a lot of very poor people in the USA too. As in your county the people recruited don't have better options. This is called "poverty draft" in many articles. Recruiters give you hope that they will pay for your education A recruiter interviewed in ...


7

From Green on blue, unboxing, and brass: on the radar in September 2012: ... Green on blue is modeled after an earlier phrase, blue on blue, referring to inadvertent clashes between members of the same side in an armed conflict... Blue on blue originated in the British military in the early 1980s, but has now spread around the world, and even moved ...


7

The main reason that comes to mind at once are legal issues: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/97/03/chapt1.html Nevada, legalizing casino gambling in 1931, was for almost 50 years the only state with legal casinos, New Jersey being the second one, in 1976.


6

Taking the link SevenSidedDie found, it looks like a penny in 2007 would have been worth roughly 0.037 cents at the founding of the Republic. The interesting thing is that if you look at the graph, almost all of this inflation happened after the 1930's. For most of the history of the USA, the buying power of our currency was fairly stable. What changed ...


6

Just as an interesting contra-discussion, the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 were largely influenced by the French government's desire to fund Jefferson during the election of 1796. Foreign governments have been involved in elections for a long time.


6

There are only approximately 20,000 Zoroastrians in Iran, which is about 0.026% of the total population. I would not say Zoroastrianism is strong in Iran in terms of the total population. The only way Zoroastrianism can be said to be strong in Iran is because it has the second-largest Zoroastrian population after India (~69,000). See List of countries by ...


6

Steam Engine: A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Unless you are specifically referring to steam railway locomotives, a particular application of the steam engine, then yes steam engines are widely used as the most common worldwide means of producing electric power. The particular class of ...


6

Nuclear power stations are steam engines, they just use a different source of energy to generate the steam from what you're probably thinking of. So yes, steam engines are in widespread use around the planet.


5

No the Cold War has stopped. If you think that the 'Cold War' is still going on because there is still slighly antagonoistic relationships between Russia and western europe, then you have to remember that there has always been antogonism between Russia and western europe. Just look at The Great Game (between Russia & UK), or French invasion of Russia in ...


5

There could be multiple perspectives to looking at this, but in my opinion its the following three factors: Economic Progress and Globalization: Since WW2, most countries have been so busy in rebuilding their Economies or sustaining Growth and Development, that war never got a priority that it once used to get (like during the 1800-1900 era). Especially ...


5

First, I think the United Nations is a barely functioning body, diplomatically. It serves many worthy causes in some of its agencies, such as the World Health Organization and the World Food Program, but for its main stated purpose it isn't much of a factor. However, the UN is sort of an arbiter of last resort for the smaller powers, because its decisions ...


5

First of all, this is not true that "practically all Asian nations were colonized by the Europeans". China and Russia were never colonized and this is a very large part of Asia in territory and population. Middle Asia was colonized by Russia, not by West Europe. European colonizers mostly were successful in those territories close to the ocean. And of ...


4

I'm hardly a Mexican legal expert. However, the Constitutional article you state (the first can be ignored, as that Constitution isn't in effect any more) seems to say that your right to keep guns in your own home can only be restricted by Federal authorities (not state or local authorities). However, there's no limit placed on how restrictive the Federal ...


4

If we grant that the dollar changed insignificantly until the 1934 when the dollar was detached from the gold standard, then we are left with some way of attaching value to something else that is constant. Because all companies and their products are expressed in dollars, it would be a circular reference to attempt to use those. I see only one constant: the ...


4

Check Harvard Business Review. I've bought their "IKEA and Ingvar Kamprad" and "IKEA Invades America" articles (each are about $5) which both include information regarding some of their earlier approaches to design.


4

You need to make distinctions between: US government openly supporting a group (likely, not happening though for reasons of plausible deniability/optics rather than some law). This may be confused with legit spending on assorted humanitarian etc... programs though. The latter is legal as long as Congress appropriates the money for the purpose. US ...


4

Modern scholarly points about Nazism are kind of beside the point, since any one of them extremely depends on ones ethical, moral and philosophical axioms and bases the scholar has, and most of them are quite contrary to each other. As a couple of random examples: Communist types criticize Nazism for (1) its nationalist structure - proper communism is ...


4

The main factor is here undoubtedly Christianity. The Ancient Greeks may have distinguished themselves from the eastern Persians, but they did not align themselves any more with the barbarian tribes in most of Europe at the time. In fact, they at least appreciated the civilisation of the Achaemenid Persians. Other factors, most notably the Roman Empire and ...


4

I have never heard this theory, and I suspect it's rooted in racism from victors who want to get rid of their enemies. I do not think it has any basis in science or biology. You might as well ask about the theory that Jews have deceitful genes and bad blood that will make them treacherous, another thinly cloaked racist pseudotheory.


3

Like virtually every other country, Iran values having a culture that is not simply defined by its predominant religion. Iran, therefore, has a close attachment to its pre-Islamic (or better, non-Islamic) civilisation. Besides being a source of pride in its own right, this heritage also serves to differentiate the country and people from its surrounding ...



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