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10

It appears that the crusaders were eventually pushed back onto Cyprus, which continued to have Frankish rulers for another three centuries. The Knights Hospitaller also moved on to Rhodes for about two centuries, until expelled by Suleiman. From they they moved to Malta, which they held until Napoleon took it from them in 1798. The Knights Templar tried ...


8

How leprosy was considered in the Middle-Ages is an interesting story, because it evolved quite rapidly at the end of the 12th century, but differently depending on the place, and Baldwin IV was used as example. If you read French, read this article from Mark Gregory Pegg (it is a translation; I could not find the English original online). As a rough ...


8

Saladin was actually at war with the Almohads. The latter were probably pleased to see the crusaders arrive on the scene. There is a good article on this by A. Baadj in "Al-Qanṭara", 2013, pp. 276-295. A pdf is available on "Google Scholar".


7

The groundwork that allowed the use of the strait by the crusaders began much earlier than 1190, and has as much to do with other political and military developments around the Iberian peninsula than anything else. The Almohadin fleet had been for centuries a dominant force in the region, and has essentially controlled access to the Mediterranean for 400 ...


6

At this point in history the Northern European galleys were much faster and seaworthy than anything the Arabs were building. Also, in arms the Northern Europeans had caught up with the Arabs, and exceeded them by far in the quality of shields and armor. Richard's knights were fully armored in steel while the typical Spanish arab was wearing cloth robes and a ...


5

Religion has been used by all groups of peoples to help them understand and regulate warfare and thus also to convince people to take part (recruit them). Provided here is a Wikipedia list of war gods. In a monotheistic religion, the role of the war god is combined as a trait of the one god. In the Old Testament, the Jewish God can be seen commanding his ...


5

This passage seems inspired by a number of letters Erasmus of Rotterdam wrote around 1518. One example is his March 1518 letter to John Colet, in which Erasmus concluded that "the rule of the Turks will be more tolerable than the rule of Christians like [the Papacy]". Another is his (again) March 1518 letter to John Fisher, in which he claimed that Papal ...


5

That 14th century passage of Richard eating Saracens is fictitious, for reasons @T.E.D. has gone into. Richard Coer de Lyon is a romance, not history. In this story, King Richard first became a cannibal when he requested pork to cure himself of a malady, and was given a Saracen instead - as a practical joke by his knights. Richard Coer de Lyon is a ...


5

Quoted from "The Civilization of the Middle Ages" by Norman F. Cantor: "Indeed, Acre never fell to the Moslems. In 1291 the French knights who garrisoned it decided that their homeland had forgotten them and that the siege of many years to which they had been subjected would never be relieved. They arranged with the Arab general to surrender ...


4

Mail is actually a heatsink: it draws the heat out of you. The same principle is employed in the construction of computers. In hot weather mail makes you cooler. Indeed, the first people to use mail extensively were the Romans, who fought mostly in and around the Mediterranean and other such hot climates. The only problem is that when directly exposed to ...


4

As you have noticed, buttons did not become popular as fasteners until around 1300. This is because before then clothing tended to consist of cloaks, robes, tunics and other loosely fitting garments that were easily secured with a pin (brooch or fibula). The Romans, Greeks and Levantines did wear buttons, but mostly as a sewn-on decoration, not as a ...


4

As this was the height of the Middle Ages, our sources for these kinds of things quite frankly stink. The legend about King Richard seems to come from a "ballad-chronicle". They were sort of the lowbrow popular equivalent to the Romantic Epic. These were stories sung by bards chiefly for the purpose of entertainment. The accurate recounting of historical ...


3

A large portion of the (ex-)Crusaders married local Christian women and stayed behind in the Levant after the demise of the Crusader states. The largest Christian community in present-day Palestine are the Latin-rite Catholics, generally believed to be descendants of Crusaders, though now they speak Arabic and are integrated in Palestinian society.


2

First, it should be noted that there were a lot of Eastern Christians in the Middle East before during and after the Crusades. Some of their cultural descendents still live in Lebanon and Israel/Palestine and Iraq and Syria. There are many Christians in Egypt. If you're talking about Western colonists and their descendents, they almost certainly were all ...


1

Erasmus of Rotterdam was a "correspondent" of Martin Luther, and this quote came out around the time of Luther's publishing the "95 Theses," attacking the sale of indulgences and other practices of the Catholic Church. The context was a "choosing sides" issue. As every boy learns on the playground, "you don't want to be the odd man out in a three cornered ...


1

The preferred tactic of the so-called Assassins (or, as they called themselves, the Fida’iyyun) was to come up close to a public figure and kill him with a sword. It is difficult to see how they could have could have got so near to their victims, unchallenged, if they were wearing a distinctive uniform. The whole point was that they blended in to the crowd.


1

Excellent article explaining the timeline, each crusade and the complex relationship between Saladin and the Berberic Empire: The crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of indulgences for those who fought in them and directed against external and internal enemies of Christendom for the recovery of Christian property or in ...


1

I believe Saladin showed kindness to Richard the Lionheart not because of religion or to spy, though that is a distinct possibility, but because of Saladin's respect towards Richard, even though they were enemies. This respect of an enemy is common throughout history, though not expressed like Saladin with gifts. Julius Caesar had respect for Pompey, ...



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