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16

This may sound unintuitive, but a new kingdom could not be trivially proclaimed. Calling yourself a king has very little meaning if it isn't recognised by anyone else. For maximum acceptance by your peers and subjects, therefore, your new kingdom had to be properly constituted by the lawful authorities. In the case of Latin Europe during the High Middle ...


8

There was a certain amount of natural antagonism between the west and the Byzantines. Part of this was religious: They belonged to different sects of Christianity, and thus often viewed each other as little better than heretics or Muslims. Another part was commercial. What little commerce the west had was in direct competition with the Byzantines, whose ...


6

Please keep in mind that the IVth Crusade mentioned in the first answer has resulted in taking of Constantinople by mostly Venician troops in 1204. This has resulted in a long-lasting civil war between the Latins and the Byzantines. Finally Constantinople was taken back by the Byzantines in 1261, but the Empire did not regain all its territory and wealth. ...


5

This passage seems inspired by a number of letters Erasmus of Rotterdam wrote around 1518. One example is his March 1518 letter to John Colet, in which Erasmus concluded that "the rule of the Turks will be more tolerable than the rule of Christians like [the Papacy]". Another is his (again) March 1518 letter to John Fisher, in which he claimed that Papal ...


5

Not at all directly, as that would be a bit of an anachronism. While the term "just war", and the basic idea behind the concept belong to Augustine, what are known today as the principles of it were actually laid out initially by Thomas Aquinas in 1274 in his Summa Theologica, and have been greatly expanded over the years into the theory we know today. ...


4

The crusaders were trying to create the kingdom of Jerusalem by conquering the holy lands from the Muslims. All the small states they setup on the way were part of the one big Jerusalem kingdom. The wiki actually has an article about this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vassals_of_the_Kingdom_of_Jerusalem If Baldwin made himself king of somewhere else, it ...


3

It depends who is talking. As @Alex pointed in his comment Serious historians do not use the words "good", "bad", "evil" etc. These notions depend on time and culture. So when talking about different time and different culture, a scientist should avoid them. What is important, the process of taking back Spain (and Portugal) is called not a "crusade", ...


2

Edessa was a small town with sonme villages around it. Why would he call that a kingdom. It'll just make himself the laughing stock of the crusaders. What do you think will happen if Donald Trump called himself king of Trump tower? It's like that and 1000 years earlier.


2

Maybe you are confusing situations: Currently, the idea of "Reconquista" is just held to talk about the chronological and geographical frame, but the idea of a "managed" process to take all of the Iberian Peninsula back from the Muslim rulers is generally discredited as a "post-facto" fabrication (giving a "national idea" of "proto-Spain" to the several ...


2

First, it should be noted that there were a lot of Eastern Christians in the Middle East before during and after the Crusades. Some of their cultural descendents still live in Lebanon and Israel/Palestine and Iraq and Syria. There are many Christians in Egypt. If you're talking about Western colonists and their descendents, they almost certainly were all ...


1

The question needs a time period, but assuming that you are asking about the period when Constantinople fell in 1453, the old map below shows the situation: As you can see from the map, Constantinople was in a desparate situation, completely surrounded by Turkish territory for hundreds of miles. The only European power that could help them was the ...


1

Erasmus of Rotterdam was a "correspondent" of Martin Luther, and this quote came out around the time of Luther's publishing the "95 Theses," attacking the sale of indulgences and other practices of the Catholic Church. The context was a "choosing sides" issue. As every boy learns on the playground, "you don't want to be the odd man out in a three cornered ...


1

There is a strong probability that the stories about his experiments were lies circulated by his enemies. The story about the child experiment has also been told about other historical characters, for example. I suppose that the story tellers considered him to be evil not so much for harming people cruelty but for questioning and experimenting with topics ...



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