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17

This may sound unintuitive, but a new kingdom could not be trivially proclaimed. Calling yourself a king has very little meaning if it isn't recognised by anyone else. For maximum acceptance by your peers and subjects, therefore, your new kingdom had to be properly constituted by the lawful authorities. In the case of Latin Europe during the High Middle ...


5

Not at all directly, as that would be a bit of an anachronism. While the term "just war", and the basic idea behind the concept belong to Augustine, what are known today as the principles of it were actually laid out initially by Thomas Aquinas in 1274 in his Summa Theologica, and have been greatly expanded over the years into the theory we know today. ...


4

Frederick II was not a monster. One must consider when he lived, for one. They had NO idea that keeping children in that way would mess them up psychologically, as it surely would, if they even lived, which they didn't, and they didn't know it would kill them, either. Prisoners were deemed at the time to have given their lives to the State. ANYTHING could ...


4

The crusaders were trying to create the kingdom of Jerusalem by conquering the holy lands from the Muslims. All the small states they setup on the way were part of the one big Jerusalem kingdom. The wiki actually has an article about this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vassals_of_the_Kingdom_of_Jerusalem If Baldwin made himself king of somewhere else, it ...


4

Maybe you are confusing situations: Currently, the idea of "Reconquista" is just held to talk about the chronological and geographical frame, but the idea of a "managed" process to take all of the Iberian Peninsula back from the Muslim rulers is generally discredited as a "post-facto" fabrication (giving a "national idea" of "proto-Spain" to the several ...


4

It depends who is talking. As @Alex pointed in his comment Serious historians do not use the words "good", "bad", "evil" etc. These notions depend on time and culture. So when talking about different time and different culture, a scientist should avoid them. What is important, the process of taking back Spain (and Portugal) is called not a "crusade", ...


3

To be honest, this is a question that can be answered with a quick look at Wikipedia, which appears reasonably well sourced, and probably as reliable as any answer you will receive here. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_England#Persecution_and_expulsion To summarise Wikipedia ... there were an estimated 3000 Jews in England in 1278. 500 ...


2

I'll cover just the peasants. Peasants participated in the First Crusade in three ways. First, in the very poorly organized People's Crusade preceding the First Crusader armies by a few months. Second, peasantry would made up the bulk of the armies raised for the First Crusade and most would simply be wearing their normal work clothes. Third, camp followers, ...


2

Edessa was a small town with sonme villages around it. Why would he call that a kingdom. It'll just make himself the laughing stock of the crusaders. What do you think will happen if Donald Trump called himself king of Trump tower? It's like that and 1000 years earlier.


1

There is a strong probability that the stories about his experiments were lies circulated by his enemies. The story about the child experiment has also been told about other historical characters, for example. I suppose that the story tellers considered him to be evil not so much for harming people cruelty but for questioning and experimenting with topics ...



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