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8

Saladin was actually at war with the Almohads. The latter were probably pleased to see the crusaders arrive on the scene. There is a good article on this by A. Baadj in "Al-Qaná¹­ara", 2013, pp. 276-295. A pdf is available on "Google Scholar".


7

It appears that the crusaders were eventually pushed back onto Cyprus, which continued to have Frankish rulers for another three centuries. The Knights Hospitaller also moved on to Rhodes for about two centuries, until expelled by Suleiman. From they they moved to Malta, which they held until Napoleon took it from them in 1798. The Knights Templar tried ...


6

The groundwork that allowed the use of the strait by the crusaders began much earlier than 1190, and has as much to do with other political and military developments around the Iberian peninsula than anything else. The Almohadin fleet had been for centuries a dominant force in the region, and has essentially controlled access to the Mediterranean for 400 ...


6

At this point in history the Northern European galleys were much faster and seaworthy than anything the Arabs were building. Also, in arms the Northern Europeans had caught up with the Arabs, and exceeded them by far in the quality of shields and armor. Richard's knights were fully armored in steel while the typical Spanish arab was wearing cloth robes and a ...


4

Quoted from "The Civilization of the Middle Ages" by Norman F. Cantor: "Indeed, Acre never fell to the Moslems. In 1291 the French knights who garrisoned it decided that their homeland had forgotten them and that the siege of many years to which they had been subjected would never be relieved. They arranged with the Arab general to surrender ...


4

As you have noticed, buttons did not become popular as fasteners until around 1300. This is because before then clothing tended to consist of cloaks, robes, tunics and other loosely fitting garments that were easily secured with a pin (brooch or fibula). The Romans, Greeks and Levantines did wear buttons, but mostly as a sewn-on decoration, not as a ...


4

Religion has been used by all groups of peoples to help them understand and regulate warfare and thus also to convince people to take part (recruit them). Provided here is a Wikipedia list of war gods. In a monotheistic religion, the role of the war god is combined as a trait of the one god. In the Old Testament, the Jewish God can be seen commanding his ...


4

The motivation for the various crusades differed. The first crusade was to a large extent a response to the increasing power of the Muslim empire. This seemed to have worried Christian powers for some time, and when the Byzantine Emperor asked for military help from the Pope to fight off Turkic Muslims the Pope responded with a speech at the Council of ...


3

A large portion of the (ex-)Crusaders married local Christian women and stayed behind in the Levant after the demise of the Crusader states. The largest Christian community in present-day Palestine are the Latin-rite Catholics, generally believed to be descendants of Crusaders, though now they speak Arabic and are integrated in Palestinian society.


3

I found a few articles, here and here. The historical inaccuracies are quite extensive, ranging from anachronisms like tomatoes, to conspiracy theories regarding the knights templar.


2

The Catholic Encyclopedia contains a length article on the Catholic Military Orders as well as on specific orders such as the Teutonic Knights and the Knights Templar. Some key points from those articles are: Religious State The knights of the great orders were regarded in the Church as analogous to monks whose three vows they professed and whose ...


2

Most of the Christian population were fairly non-militarised during the crusader period. SO generally they did not participate in military affairs. Exceptions being the Armenians and Maronites. Various Armenian Christians were allied withe the crusaders, the county of Edessa was some sort of mixed state, with a lot of intermarriage with the locals and ...


1

Excellent article explaining the timeline, each crusade and the complex relationship between Saladin and the Berberic Empire: The crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of indulgences for those who fought in them and directed against external and internal enemies of Christendom for the recovery of Christian property or in ...



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