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The usual explanation is that Japanese culture believed the soul resides in the abdomen. Since the ritual of seppuku or harakiri is usually meant to provide an honourable death, cutting open the abdomen was an act that "bares the soul", so to speak. The Meiji educator Dr. Nitobe Inazō wrote in his famous Bushido: the Soul of Japan that: [T]he choice of ...


6

It's most likely illness. Takeda Shingen's death has been reported as pulmonary tuberculosis in the Buke Jiki, 武家事紀, and as throat or stomach cancer in the Kōyō Gunkan 甲陽軍鑑. There's a theory that he was killed by a bullet or bullet wound, but this is generally regarded as a popular myth. It is only found in pro-Tokugawa writings (i.e. propaganda) produced ...


5

Found information and more or less contemporary sources on Google Books (here, here and here, for example) and in gallica.fr (here), but no source cares to say how he died, only hinting that it was sudden and unexpected; the only person I found who said something about how he died was Voltaire, who, in his letters, didn't hide his rejoicing at Royer's death ...


4

There was Atlit Detainee Camp, a prison built by the British to hold Jewish immigrants. POWs from the Arab armies as well as Palestinian irregular forces were put there but all were released shortly after the war's end in 1949. Contrary to the wishes of the organizers of Israel Apartheid week,it was not an extermination/torture camp. For a few years after ...


4

Although the Lewis and Clark expedition ended on September 23, 1806, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark remained close both personally and professionally up until the death of Meriwether Lewis on October 11, 1809. Lewis, Clark and Clark's wife Julia actually lived together for a short time (ca. 1808) in St. Louis, Missouri. Julia Clark gave birth to a son ...


3

Yes indeed. As early as 1346, corpses with symptoms of the Black Death seem to have been catapulted by the Mongols into the city of Caffa, Crimea during a siege. Reference: Wheelis M., Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa. Emerg Infect Dis, Sep 2002. Available here It may be noted that this use was not very effective, since knowledge of the ...


1

In addition to the soul is in the bowels explanation, I read recently that the reason they chose a painful easy to die is to punish themselves. So a samurai who had committed a capital offense was going to die, but by choosing a painful method of dying he is giving himself additional punishment to earn forgiveness. This may not apply to all seppuku cases, ...


1

Good condition, complete human skulls sell for $500 to $1000. If they have some special provenance, like being a trophy of the war in the Pacific which is documented they can get even more, perhaps as much as $2000 to $3000. Over the years such things tend to end up in the hands of collectors, the family members who inherit them selling them. Most ...


1

In the Philippines, some of my teachers have already settled this fact. Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigated the world in two trips. He was the second do it in two trips. (first, his ventures in Ternate and second trip, the expedition from 1519 to his death in 1521). Sebastian de Cano circumnavigated the world in one trip. Enrique of Malacca (Magellan's ...


1

I believe that the ax part of a fasces was symbolic of the magistrate's authority to order executions. The Romans are alleged to have also beheaded people with devices similar to guillotines. Any source on the history of the guillotine should mention some earlier devices similar to the guillotine used in various times and places. Thus if you read simply ...



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