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10

Like this thread on catapulting diseased dead bodies, the pouring of boiling oil and tar did happen - though not so commonly. Remember that many castles never saw action. Many more castles were built decoratively as a fashion rather than because defence was needed. However, when you look to city wall and city gates, here you see more use. Also a city will ...


9

Southeast New Guinea (Papua) was legally part of Australia during WWII, and there were battles there as the Japanese tried to take out Port Moresby. This includes the advance over the Owen Stanley Mountains and the landing in Milne Bay.


7

In the case of Conway (and most other places on borders) - it's more a castle than a town. There is no point in having a well fortified castle, if around it you have an undefended town to give your attackers a base to live in while they attack you. The walled part of the city is really just the first line of castle defence for a siege. Conway s part of ...


6

Depends on what you call "Australia" and "attacks". One could say that the UK attacked and took over the country from the natives that were there initially.


6

From Global Security: Russian Military Spending: In 1988 military spending was a single line item in the Soviet state budget, totaling 21 billion rubles, or about US$33 billion. Given the size of the military establishment, however, the actual figure was at least ten times higher. Western experts concluded that the 21 billion ruble figure reflected only ...


4

Boiling oil is a good weapon, because its boiling point (400 degrees Fahrenheit) is much higher than that of water (212 degrees). It was a moderately effective weapon against men. But by its boiling and burning properties, it was a very effective weapon against ladders, rams, catapults, and other war instruments made of wood. Also, if successfully used, it ...


3

Aside from attacks during the two already mentioned time periods - European colonisation and the Japanese attacks during WW2 - there was another attack on Australian soil, though not on the continent itself: In the early morning of 2004-09-09, a car bomb was detonated at the Australian embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia. Of course, an embassy's area isn't, ...


3

A Japanese submarine bombarded the suburbs of Sydney, including Rose Bay, with a small cannon. As part of the initial attacks on Northern Australia, there were air raids at several points including a devastating attack on a seaplane base at Broome in North-Western Australia. Eventually the Japanese had to re-deploy the carrier forces that led these attacks ...


3

Rome did not build defensive barriers on cities or provinces for hundreds of years. They relied on the Legions marching out onto the other sides' turf and breaking up opposition. Cities without the ability to project force thousands of miles always have used walls. Even in a desert, there is rock or clay to build a defensive wall and ditch. Aside from a ...


3

It's a simple (or not) optimization problem. Is the cost of the wall to protect the surrounding farms + cost of defending that wall (marginal cost compared to just the wall around the city) more or less than the cost of losing and rebuilding the farms (land improvements, buildings, stocks that can't be moved to the city and possibly farmers)? Judging by ...


3

Once the English stopped fighting each other, they relied on sea power for protection against continental enemies. For example: Hapsburg Spain. They would speak of their "wooden walls," meaning ships. This is only a partial example, but certainly the English relied less on fortifications than, say, the fought-over cities of the Low Countries.


2

When at the peak of its power, ancient Sparta had no walls around its capital city. The standard cliche one reads and hears is that the "walls" of Sparta were the fighting men of its army.


2

Walls (or physical barriers) appear to be the standard defensive structure for a city in order to keep invaders out. Are there examples of cultures/cities that successfully defended themselves without the use of barriers, and how did they accomplish that? Since the Napoleonic revolution in warfare, logistics have played a greater and greater role in ...


2

City walls were for more than defense from attackers. Walls would help a city control immigration and trade, keeping out undesirables would be vital to a city remaining healthy especially preventing epidemics that could devastate a city. Walls Can also help with fighting crime to a degree by making entry/escape more challenging for criminals.


2

To answer your first question, yes attacks were frequent. This is what prompted many of the earliest 'settlements' to build a surrounding and protective wall in the first place, to stop constant raids from stronger 'warrior' nomadic tribes killing, enslaving people and stealing food. To answer your second question, the farmers and dry grain/food supplies ...



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