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19

I've combined the data in: List of largest cities throughout history World population estimates The winners are: Modern Tokyo (metropolitan area), home to 0.55% of the world's population 700 AD Chang'an, home to 0.44% of the world's population 200 AD Rome, home to 0.42% of the world's population 1 AD Rome, 400 AD Rome, and 1900 AD London follow, ...


10

The oldest human could still live to be over 100 just as they do today. This was of course much rarer. Here's some data from the University of Texas on the matter. Infant Mortality by that page was 31.9% considerably worse than even the worst of the world 60 years ago. This was skewed by infanticide and such.


10

Expanding on @MonsterTruck's comment above, China (especially the east part) is really good for food production. According to Wikipedia's list of countries by agricultural output China has 17 per cent of global agricultural production today, compared to around 7 for the European Union, 7 for India and 4 for the United States. I would expect the construction ...


8

A recent report by USAID offers a brief but insightful view on some of current research on 'Youth Bulge' hypothesis. Some of the key take-away are: The common thread across the latest research is that youth bulges alone do not cause conflict. Rather, when unstable politics and social deterioration are combined with large numbers of disadvantaged young men, ...


7

From IPUMS (click on "case count" here) we have the number of farm and nonfarm households in the United States from 1850 onwards (note comparability problems after 1950). In their 1% sample of the 1850 census, more than half of households are non-farm. However, the groups are close to equal size, so we can expect the equal split (in households) to have taken ...


7

From the US Census, 1920 was the first census where more than half the population was considered Urban rather than Rural. This might be considered a rough answer to your question. Source


7

In the end of the XIX century most Jews were concentrated in the Russian empire. (Modern Poland, Ukraine, Belorussia). Until 1917 Jews in the Russian empire were discriminated (Pale of settlement, restrictions on education, discrimination in the army etc.). There were pogroms, people were killed, their property destroyed. With the start of WW I, conditions ...


7

This is a difficult question to answer because towns were of different sizes and the size of a guild depended on what kind of guild it was. For example, an association of bakers would have a lot more members than a guild of glovers. Florence had a population of about 20,000 people in 1100 A.D.. If we assume 1 baker per hundred people, that would be 200 men. ...


6

There are more members of many ethnic backgrounds in the U.S. than in their "home" countries. That is true not only of Jews but of Irish, British, and Germans (less so of southern and eastern Europeans). There are several reasons. 1) America was the "natural" place of emigration for people suffering from religious persecution. That applied to e.g. English ...


5

I'm sorry to throw a PhD dissertation at you. But I believe Food shortages and economic institutions in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea addresses your concerns. From page 168 (179 on the freely viewable pdf). Addresses whether there was a famine using the accounts you have hinted at as well as UN figures, with comparison to official DPRK figures. ...


5

China is the world's third largest country in size, after Russia and Canada. The latter two are further north, much colder, and less hospitable to population growth. China is one of the world's oldest civilizations. Others, such as Egypt, Babylon, and even India are much smaller in size. The combination of large land area (in a mostly temperate climate) ...


5

Going by the birth rate data, it would seem that there was little change in the birth rate between 1910 (30.1 per 1,000), 1915 (29.5 per 1,000) and 1920 (27.7 per 1,000). It can be argued that the war didn't affect the population at all in that respect. However, another explanation can be that there are two conflicting forces working simultaneously. For ...


5

Quite apart from Semaphore's assertion that there simply were more Amerindians in the south than in the north, there's also the factor that there was far more immigration of Europeans and Asians into the north than there was into the south. But that's not all of it. Another important factor is how the numbers are established. Especially in the US people ...


4

Source: Kremer, Michael. "Population growth and technological change: one million BC to 1990." The Quarterly Journal of Economics (1993): 681-716. Graph by Richard Vermillion.


3

That passage is based on the works of Henry F. Dobyns. In his 1983 book, Dobyns advocated for a 18 million strong pre-contact population in North America. Specifically, he gave an estimate of 5,250,000 people living in the Mississippi River valleys. This, according to Dobyns, amounted to a population density of 2.53 per km2. Horcicultural peoples ...


3

World War I did not produce a Baby Boom, because the so-called "Lost" generation that fought it was ALREADY a Baby bust generation. The war just exacerbated the effect of this cohort producing fewer children. World War II had a LIBERATING effect on Americans. Women (included married women) had somewhat stopped sleeping with their husbands during the ...


3

According to Colin McEvedy, in 737 after the Muslim Conquest of Spain, the population on the peninsula was around 4 million. Nearly all of that would have been in Muslim-held territory, as there simply wasn't much else but a couple of little strips of land in the mountainous northern coastal region. Toledo was the only city of any real size in Western Europe ...


3

Rice is three to five times more productive than wheat. The land can sustain two or three crops of rice annually, while wheat is limited to one. So, all factors combined, rice can be up to 15 times more productive. The same quantity of land can produce up to 15 times more rice than wheat. It is worth remembering that in early China, the available primitive ...


3

I could add a few Farming technology. Ancient chinese farming technology is about as advance as post industrial revolution in Europe. Chinese farm all years. Europeans do not have good irrigation system. Ancient chinese cultures measure prosperity by population growth. The idea is if you govern well, people will come to you (like people flocking US and ...


3

There was indeed fighting in what is today Iran during WWI. It is hard to say exactly how many died in that fighting, most sources just list casualties for the Ottoman Empire as a whole, which is below 3 million, and that includes around half a million war dead and 1 to 1.5 million that died in the Armenian genocide. (sources) But I can't find any sources ...


2

This Wikipedia article shows the results of the 1930 Dutch East Indies census (in the Social History section), listing 240,417 Europeans out of a total population of over 60.7MM. Calculating this as 0.4% European (with an additional 2.2%, or 1.35MM, Chinese and other foreign orientals), the European population was outnumbered 250-1 and the non-indigenous ...


2

The Wikipedia article on Al Andalus mentions this: Arabs, and Berbers comprised eighty percent of the population of Al-Andalus by around 1100. BTW as well as this: Jews constituted more than five percent of the population. If you are looking for a source published in book form, I would recommend Ibn Khaldun: The Mediterranean in the 14th ...


2

Louis I. Dublin says ...the maximum birth rates in the immediate post-war years were usually below the pre-war average and in practically all countries the long-term downward trend already in evidence before the war was resumed. A considerable part of this later decline reflects the reduction in the number of potential fathers -the young men ...


2

To comply the comments I rewrote: While this is not a direct demographic data, GDP by industry can be a good indicator where the jobs are. Agriculture is primarily farms based, industry, service is primarily urban. It may not give an exact 50% point, but gives an idea. Also, the reason behind the demographic change is the shift of economy and majority of ...


1

Pre-columbian population of North America was only a couple of million people, most of them are pre-agricultural hunter-gatherers. This kind of lifestyle does not allow more than 2-4 million people people to live on the continent. Central and South America, on the other hand, was home of several large civilizations with developed agriculture, and ...


1

The Spanish treated Amerindians in South America decidedly better than the "Anglos" did in North America. Which is why many more survived in Spanish territories. The Spanish regarded the Amerindians as sources of labor on farms and mines, as well as souls to be converted. Thus, the Spanish at least treated them just well enough to ensure that a large number ...


1

French population growth (for the 40 years) from 1871 and 1911 was 8.6%, compared to 7.0% (for the 20 years) from 1919 to 1939. That is most definitely a baby boom. (Note that extrapolating from 20 years to 40 years, the post-war 7% translates to a 14.5% rate over 40 years.) German population growth over the same two periods was respectively 59% and 15%, so ...


1

A (male) youth bulge sometimes occurs when the birth rate is FALLING. That's because most men prefer to marry women younger than them. So if the birth rate is falling, there are more older men of the earlier period than younger women of the later period. This happened with American cohorts born in the 1960s (and in certain other parts of the world). One ...



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