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20

I've combined the data in: List of largest cities throughout history World population estimates The winners are: Modern Tokyo (metropolitan area), home to 0.55% of the world's population 700 AD Chang'an, home to 0.44% of the world's population 200 AD Rome, home to 0.42% of the world's population 1 AD Rome, 400 AD Rome, and 1900 AD London follow, ...


16

Not really. Generally speaking, most European women since married in their early to mid twenties, to men in their mid to late twenties. The age gap for the commoners, i.e. the vast majority of the population, were typically not large. Unfortunately the question declined to define how much younger is "much younger" supposed to mean, but most Europeans ...


11

The answer is simple - the US population is not primarily British in descent. The states have had large numbers of immigrants from all over Europe. Canada, New Zealand, and Australia have a much higher proportion of the population directly descended from British settlers, there was very little Eastern European movement to British colonies as they were just ...


10

The oldest human could still live to be over 100 just as they do today. This was of course much rarer. Here's some data from the University of Texas on the matter. Infant Mortality by that page was 31.9% considerably worse than even the worst of the world 60 years ago. This was skewed by infanticide and such.


10

Expanding on @MonsterTruck's comment above, China (especially the east part) is really good for food production. According to Wikipedia's list of countries by agricultural output China has 17 per cent of global agricultural production today, compared to around 7 for the European Union, 7 for India and 4 for the United States. I would expect the construction ...


10

UPDATE: Aaron Fogleman estimates that 585,000 people "immigrated" (many involuntarily) to the 13 colonies between 1700-1775. If they all survived until the time of the Revolution, then 24% of the population at the time of the Revolution would be foreign born (585,000/2,400,000 = .244). Of course this is an absurd assumption, so treat this estimate as an ...


9

Actuarial science was just getting started in the 17th century, so we can answer this question with some specificity--for London and Breslow, anyway. John Graunt made the following life table for London in 1662 (source): Around 1% of Londoners were older than 77. Edmond Halley (of comet fame) made the following table for Breslau in 1693. Note that ...


8

A recent report by USAID offers a brief but insightful view on some of current research on 'Youth Bulge' hypothesis. Some of the key take-away are: The common thread across the latest research is that youth bulges alone do not cause conflict. Rather, when unstable politics and social deterioration are combined with large numbers of disadvantaged young men, ...


7

Quite apart from Semaphore's assertion that there simply were more Amerindians in the south than in the north, there's also the factor that there was far more immigration of Europeans and Asians into the north than there was into the south. But that's not all of it. Another important factor is how the numbers are established. Especially in the US people ...


7

From IPUMS (click on "case count" here) we have the number of farm and nonfarm households in the United States from 1850 onwards (note comparability problems after 1950). In their 1% sample of the 1850 census, more than half of households are non-farm. However, the groups are close to equal size, so we can expect the equal split (in households) to have taken ...


7

From the US Census, 1920 was the first census where more than half the population was considered Urban rather than Rural. This might be considered a rough answer to your question. Source


7

In the end of the XIX century most Jews were concentrated in the Russian empire. (Modern Poland, Ukraine, Belorussia). Until 1917 Jews in the Russian empire were discriminated (Pale of settlement, restrictions on education, discrimination in the army etc.). There were pogroms, people were killed, their property destroyed. With the start of WW I, conditions ...


7

This is a difficult question to answer because towns were of different sizes and the size of a guild depended on what kind of guild it was. For example, an association of bakers would have a lot more members than a guild of glovers. Florence had a population of about 20,000 people in 1100 A.D.. If we assume 1 baker per hundred people, that would be 200 men. ...


6

Going by the birth rate data, it would seem that there was little change in the birth rate between 1910 (30.1 per 1,000), 1915 (29.5 per 1,000) and 1920 (27.7 per 1,000). It can be argued that the war didn't affect the population at all in that respect. However, another explanation can be that there are two conflicting forces working simultaneously. For ...


6

There are more members of many ethnic backgrounds in the U.S. than in their "home" countries. That is true not only of Jews but of Irish, British, and Germans (less so of southern and eastern Europeans). There are several reasons. 1) America was the "natural" place of emigration for people suffering from religious persecution. That applied to e.g. English ...


5

I'm sorry to throw a PhD dissertation at you. But I believe Food shortages and economic institutions in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea addresses your concerns. From page 168 (179 on the freely viewable pdf). Addresses whether there was a famine using the accounts you have hinted at as well as UN figures, with comparison to official DPRK figures. ...


5

China is the world's third largest country in size, after Russia and Canada. The latter two are further north, much colder, and less hospitable to population growth. China is one of the world's oldest civilizations. Others, such as Egypt, Babylon, and even India are much smaller in size. The combination of large land area (in a mostly temperate climate) ...


4

Source: Kremer, Michael. "Population growth and technological change: one million BC to 1990." The Quarterly Journal of Economics (1993): 681-716. Graph by Richard Vermillion.


4

Apart from other reasons here exposed, I think it is worth mentioning a) some groups of South American natives were adapted (culturally, and even in some cases, physically) to environments which were not comfortable for white settlers. For extreme examples, think of Amazonian tribes and inhabitants from the Andean Plateau. In these cases, there was little ...


3

I think you are missing the true pattern of that map. Note that it shows a higher percentage of natives in Canada than it does in the US, and shows the same lower percentage of natives in the USA as in a geographically contiguous area of South America (1% or less). If anything, the real pattern there is that areas in the subtropics (but not subartic) have ...


3

That passage is based on the works of Henry F. Dobyns. In his 1983 book, Dobyns advocated for a 18 million strong pre-contact population in North America. Specifically, he gave an estimate of 5,250,000 people living in the Mississippi River valleys. This, according to Dobyns, amounted to a population density of 2.53 per km2. Horcicultural peoples ...


3

World War I did not produce a Baby Boom, because the so-called "Lost" generation that fought it was ALREADY a Baby bust generation. The war just exacerbated the effect of this cohort producing fewer children. World War II had a LIBERATING effect on Americans. Women (included married women) had somewhat stopped sleeping with their husbands during the ...


3

According to Colin McEvedy, in 737 after the Muslim Conquest of Spain, the population on the peninsula was around 4 million. Nearly all of that would have been in Muslim-held territory, as there simply wasn't much else but a couple of little strips of land in the mountainous northern coastal region. Toledo was the only city of any real size in Western Europe ...


3

Rice is three to five times more productive than wheat. The land can sustain two or three crops of rice annually, while wheat is limited to one. So, all factors combined, rice can be up to 15 times more productive. The same quantity of land can produce up to 15 times more rice than wheat. It is worth remembering that in early China, the available primitive ...


3

I could add a few Farming technology. Ancient chinese farming technology is about as advance as post industrial revolution in Europe. Chinese farm all years. Europeans do not have good irrigation system. Ancient chinese cultures measure prosperity by population growth. The idea is if you govern well, people will come to you (like people flocking US and ...


3

There was indeed fighting in what is today Iran during WWI. It is hard to say exactly how many died in that fighting, most sources just list casualties for the Ottoman Empire as a whole, which is below 3 million, and that includes around half a million war dead and 1 to 1.5 million that died in the Armenian genocide. (sources) But I can't find any sources ...


3

Geography has a large part to do with it. America has a large population of Dutch, German, and Polish descent - areas with significant Jewish communities (at least before the Holocaust). Many would have boarded ships in Baltic/North Atlantic ports. From there, America is a closer destination by sea than say, Australia. In contrast, Italian, Greek and ...


2

This Wikipedia article shows the results of the 1930 Dutch East Indies census (in the Social History section), listing 240,417 Europeans out of a total population of over 60.7MM. Calculating this as 0.4% European (with an additional 2.2%, or 1.35MM, Chinese and other foreign orientals), the European population was outnumbered 250-1 and the non-indigenous ...


2

The Wikipedia article on Al Andalus mentions this: Arabs, and Berbers comprised eighty percent of the population of Al-Andalus by around 1100. BTW as well as this: Jews constituted more than five percent of the population. If you are looking for a source published in book form, I would recommend Ibn Khaldun: The Mediterranean in the 14th ...


2

Louis I. Dublin says ...the maximum birth rates in the immediate post-war years were usually below the pre-war average and in practically all countries the long-term downward trend already in evidence before the war was resumed. A considerable part of this later decline reflects the reduction in the number of potential fathers -the young men ...



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