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33

Theoretically, wars are still supposed to be declared. To quote the Hague Convention III of 1907: The Contracting Powers recognize that hostilities between themselves must not commence without previous and explicit warning, in the form either of a reasoned declaration of war or of an ultimatum with conditional declaration of war. However, after ...


18

The best known example is the Iran Hostage Crisis of 1979-1981. The people who entered and took over the US embassy in Tehran were not officially representatives of the Iranian government, but it's clear enough that they had government support; at the very least, the government did nothing (that I know of) to encourage them to leave. The result was a ...


13

Straight-line distance from Berlin to Vienna is 523 kilometers or 325 miles according to Wolfram Alpha. In a car traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour (ca. 88 km/h), total travel time would be 5 hours and 55 minutes. However, roads are not perfectly straight. According to Google Maps the shortest route is 678 km long and you would need at least ...


13

Several memoirs of the period suggest that the Berlin to Vienna journey very likely could be completed in 12 days or less. This matches up fairly closely to @Eugene's estimate of two weeks. However, one account suggests that someone with more limited resources and unexpected delays could easily take much more time. The route they [1,2,3,4] usually seem to ...


12

When a war starts, the diplomats lock down the embassy and leave through a neutral country. They are neither molested nor harassed, and their diplomatic immunity is not disputed. The embassy building and the property therein is taken care of by the neutral country representing the interests of the belligerent (or some other arrangements may be made). The ...


11

It's unclear if you mean whether it was (1) a ruse by Wilson against the American public, or (2) Germany against the USA, or (3) Germany against Mexico, or (4) British against USA? As far as being a ruse by Wilson (e.g. he made up the telegram to present to Congress), this can likely be discounted since there is documentary evidence - in 2005, an ...


11

First of all, seeing as to how more than one SE user has questioned the seriousness of the Cuban missile crisis, let me try to outline how tense things were at the time. The Cuban missile crisis is the only time ever that any section of the US military has mobilised to DEFCON 2. The erstwhile SAC was at DEFCON 2 while the rest of the armed forces were at ...


9

In 2002, Chinese forces briefly entered the Japanese general consulate in China, in the action of catching defectors from North Korea, who had just rushed into the consulate. There was probably not much thinking during the brief time of the action, I guess. Afterwards, the Chinese officials claimed they were welcome, but the incident provoked a lot of ...


9

In "Ptolemy's map of Ireland: a modern decoding,"* R. Darcy and William Flynn discuss Claudius Ptolemy's Geographia, a map (among many other things) mentioning what is believed to be Ireland, dating back to the early second century. Wiki says 140 AD but I could find no other source to corroborate that claim-- but logic suggests Ptolemy made Geographia in his ...


9

In his judgment in the Tokyo war crimes tribunal, Justice Radhabinod Pal claimed that while in the west there was a convention of declaring war before the resumption of hostilities, the east did not have anything similar. He also provided a number of examples of wars that had been fought without ever declaring war, which is available in the report. So it can ...


9

Wikipedia has a pretty comprehensive list of the names used for the Ottoman Empire at different periods and in various languages. At the end of the article there's also a chronological list of links to historic maps using the alternative names of the Ottoman Empire. Since you are mostly interested in diplomacy and official writing, I also looked for a few ...


9

Using ORBIS which reconstructs travel through the Roman Empire circa 200CE as a basis, a fast carriage across ~700kms (I chose Naples to Verona) would have taken about 10 days. A horse relay team between the same cities only took 3.6 days to cover 763 kms. One could use these numbers as a rule of thumb for all pre-industrial travel on decent roads. That ...


8

In fact formal declaration of war in many countries brings many practical legal consequences, which may include: imposition of martial law extraordinary powers for the head of state ban on political parties and political activities as well as strikes limitation of rights of foreign nationals, especially those of the enemy state These consequences are not ...


8

Casablanca is further from Tunis than London is from Berlin. Would you have regarded London in January 1943 as safe enough? The Vichy French had switched sides easily enough a two months earlier, so there was no realistic sense of domestic trouble in Casablanca, or French NW Africa. The premise that that German attack at the Kasserine Pass might have thrown ...


7

I think the main reasons are: to attack surprisingly, even if the aggressor coordinates first shots with the minister, to take off the guilt from the aggressor. For example, Nazi Germany in September 1939 were counter-fighting the Gleiwitz incident, as self-defence of course, and Poland was made the aggressor, to cheat the democratic people that this is ...


6

Germany sent, or tried to send the "Zimmerman telegram" to a Mexican government that basically didn't exist. The reason was that Mexico was in throes of a "free for all" civil war at the time, which is to say that it was in a state of anarchy. The reason the Germans thought otherwise was because the most unruly of the four major factions, the one under ...


6

This letter from John Adams to John Jay makes no mention of any "back turning" incident. This website talks about how King George III eventually accepted John Adams, and claims that King George III acted in the following manner: He behaved with dignity during the interview, though he showed that he was affected by it, and assured the minister that as he ...


6

It depends entirely on circumstances. It can be any of the following: Grants (You get money) Prior loan forgiveness. This is EXTRA big deal since when you forgive a loan, it's not just the monetary value of the loan+interest that the recipient country essentially gets for free. The country also removes the risk of defaulting on that loan which - if it ...


6

Contrary to what other answerers wrote, the actual situation was much stricter to Germany than after WWI. The basic fact is that post-WWII German government had no continuity with the pre-defeat one. Actually German state was completely demolished, and after a while, two new states were re-instituted. The founders of the new states were the occupying ...


6

One answer would be that a military "contingency plan" of sorts was written into Fall WeiƟ itself - the operational plan for the invasion of Poland was written so as to begin no later than September 1st, 1939. However, it is probably very unlikely that the invasion of Poland would have been canceled if Treaty of Non-aggression hadn't been signed prior to ...


5

Short answer: No Long answer: No. There were no treaties imposed on Germany in the way that the Treaty of Versailles was thrust upon Germany after WWI. As Drux mentioned in his answer Germany was divided among the quadripartite nations (United States, Russia, Great Britain, France) each governed a portion of Germany. The Potsdam Conference was where the ...


4

Aid takes many forms. And yes sometimes it's money, sometimes it's equipment worth $X, etc. Sometimes there are so many strings attached it's not really very beneficial (but sorta better than nothing), sometimes it's bad for the country overall, but good for some people, etc.


4

The Faddan More Psalter, dating from around 800 AD, found in a bog in Ireland, is lined with papyrus, leading to suggestions of links between the early Irish Christian Church and the Middle Eastern Coptic Church.


4

I haven't heard of a connection between Ireland and Egypt, but I have heard of Vikings making it to Greece closer to 1200 BC. I didn't see much about it on Wikipedia, but this article by Ellis Peterson is pretty reflective of what I had heard in a history class several years ago. He describes a Viking invasion at a time when the Greeks were weak. If the ...


4

As a reasonable human being, you should also probably be fully aware that: Splitting off territories based on nationalist movements is usually Bad JuJu for anyone involved, for a variety of reasons (even if done peacefully, there's negative economic impact in the beginning, and there are concerns with well-being of ethnic groups native to the former large ...


4

These two factors may have been important: 1) It seems that Benedictine monasticism is not a strong or important force in the Ottonian lands. There is almost no mention of the Ottonian lands, for example in Marilyn Dunn's Emergence of Monasticism for example. One reason for this may have been the prominence, instead, of the "Aachen Rule" for canonesses and ...


4

Diplomats enjoy certain immunities. When accredited as such, they can travel in "enemy territory" without interference (unless declared persona non grata), and only the least "civilized" countries will violate the sanctity and privacy of diplomatic pouches. It was much easier for Japanese diplomats to travel through the Soviet Union than for German ...


4

Ellis is a "popular" historian or, in other words, a story teller who seeks to amuse rather than to inform, -- such is my clear impression from reading his other works. The harangue against George III in the Declaration of American Independence was only one of many diplomatic outrages that Jefferson committed in his life. If anybody doubts the paternal ...


4

The major benefit includes the SFRY's assets and property located abroad in the time of dissolution that was frozen by foreign states in which the assets/property was located. The assets/property that was of interest to successor states includes foreign currency and gold reserves and embassy buildings. ...


4

None of the contemporary accounts I have read, such as that of Francis L. Hawks (1861), which is more or less the official account of the missions, make any mention of an attack of any kind. In the Hawks narrative the embassy is presented as entirely peaceful. Also, the text of the letter which Millard Fillmore gave to Perry for delivery to the Emperor ...



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