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According to Paul Devereux in his book Mysterious Ancient America, most of the pre-Columbian American civilizations were controlled by shamanistic cults who used various hallucinogenic substances prepared from plants - mushrooms, cacti, jimson weed, etc - to induce trance-like states which gave them the appearance of "communing with the spirit world", etc ...


8

Contrary to popular myth, cannabis is not legal in the Netherlands. But the current de facto liberal policy dates to 1976. In 1976 the Netherlands adopted a formal written policy of non-enforcement for violations involving possession or sale of up to 30 grams of cannabis. [1] (emphasis mine) That study I cited is worth perusing if you're interested in ...


6

In medieval France at least, the occupation of apothecary was severely restricted by law and required a licence to be lawful (such licences appeared first in Montpellier in the 12th century, probably under the influence of the then famous academy of medicine established there then spread in the rest of France). These licences typically incorporated a ...


4

There is solid evidence that Chinese Muslims who immigrated to Russia brought Opium there in the nineteenth century. From Svetlana Rimsky- Korsakoff Dyer article for the Australian National University entitled "Karakunuz: An Early Settlement of the Chinese Muslims in Russia" "The Dungans,the descendants of Chinese Muslims who migrated to Russia over a ...


4

Looks like it's unlikely that anyone will provide a definite answer anytime soon so let this be a temporary answer. In the book "The substance abuse problems" by Sidney Cohen (as well as in some newspaper articles) the availability of drugs in West Berlin (mostly heroine and hashish) is explained by the trafficking done by guest workers from Turkey and ...


2

Hashish was known in the West as early as 1596, when it was described by Jan Huyghen van Linschoten in a book describing his travels in Egypt and Turkey. But it wasn't until the 19th century that smoking cannabis became widely known in the West, through portrayals of oriental exoticism by writers such as Dumas. Hemp was grown in the British colonies ...


1

I found an article that indicates that the effects of ether were documented as far back as 1540. It suggests that the first use of ether in surgery was by Dr. Crawford W. Long of Georgia in 1842, when he used ether while performing three separate surgeries. William T.G. Morton contacted Dr. John C. Warren (1778-1856) of Harvard University in 1846 and ...



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