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13

This is, in fact, the big question of history. Subquestion 1 here: Why didn't Native North Americans (let's say the Mound Builders, for the sake of argument) conquer the world? The problem here, by the very logic you go over in your own question, is that the MB's were inhabiting a continent that was relatively biologically deprived. By comparison to ...


9

The Smithsonian lists a couple of competitors including Samuel P. Langley, and Sir Hiram Maxim. Wikipedia has a reference to competing claims. Langley was paid by the government; he may be the individual you're remembering, although I can't immediately find any evidence of the depression.


9

This is partly covered in the article "India and the Great Divergence: An Anglo-Indian Comparison of GDP per Capita, 1600-1871" by Stephen Broadberry and Bishnupriya Gupta. The article is available here: http://www.lse.ac.uk/economicHistory/pdf/Broadberry/IndianGDPpre1970v7.pdf . (Note that in-progress articles like this have a tendency to disappear from ...


7

Postmodern This is a cultural rather than a historical science term. It refers to the contemporary line of reasoning which can be also called untra-relativism, i.e., not just that any statement's veracity is relative, but its meaning is relative as well. Modern et al I think this terminology went like this: Pre-modern: 1500-1800 Modern: 1800-WW2 ...


6

Europe was pretty much a poor smelly underdeveloped backwater in global terms for most of history, although the culture and civilization of the middle east and Africa often reached across the Mediterranean and especially into the areas near the middle east. The change from poor backwater to rulers of the world started with the conquering of the Americas, ...


5

In Hungary there was an article about this, but I am not sure you are looking for him. I remembered his name, here is wiki, it should be a good point to start. The name is Gustav Weisskopf or Gustave Whitehead depends which language you read.


5

On the subject of schizophrenia in history specifically, I happen to be working my way through Julian Jaynes' The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind which I'm finding to be a simply fascinating take on the role of (in)sanity with the origin of civilization. It speaks extensively about schizophrenia and discusses how it was viewed ...


5

I'd guess you're mainly referring to the Elizabethan Act of Uniformity and related laws from the same period which set out the church laws and their connection to the state. Some of the provisions in the Act of Uniformity were repealed or modified in 1650 by the Rump Parliament and Cromwell. They were replaced by other restrictive laws, such as the ...


5

These are both good answers but I think I can offer some extra points not included in them (after I have +1ed them both)! This is all cloaked in the wool of human history (there is always a counter example somewhere and a lot of this deals only in the general cases): The driver seems to be (as stated previously) the multiple states of almost equal power ...


5

"Living Standards" require certain measures or standards. It is therefore very difficult to come to empirical conclusions. On what basis do we judge living standards? However, if we consider Gross Domestic Product and Per Capita Gross Domestic Product, as well as wages in absolute terms, that is taking some particular year as a base (100) then a few ...


4

Apples & oranges. I don't think there are official, or even conventional definitions for any of these terms; they vary depending on context. If you're talking to a paleontologist, the definition of the modern era will be very different from the defintions used by a historian specializing in "Democracy" or "women's rights", or whatever. "postmodern" ...


3

Check out Burns and Collins's A History of Sub Saharan Africa, a general overview. It seemed to tell a lot of the same stories as an into to African History course I took. John Reader's Africa: A Biography of the Continent was a bit more enjoyable, writing-wise. Still glad I read both for the variance in perspective. I'd be curious to hear what problems ...


3

Europeans conquered "almost the whole world" (as we know it today), because the technology in use at the time of their ascendency (steamships and artillery), made it physically possible for them to do so. The Mongolians conquered "almost the whole world" as THEY knew it (most of modern Asia), based on the physical limits of their "technology" (mounted ...


3

In dutch it's a lot easier: 1500-1800 is the nieuwe tijd, wich translates to new time, and 1800 to now is the hedendaagse periode, wich translates to contemporary period. I've never heard of a distinction for the period after world war II. I can maybe help you with the first question though: we define the start of the early modern period by events like the ...


3

Under the Ancien Régime, the judiciary of France was divided into several local bodies known as parlements. Despite the similarity of their names to the modern parliamentary institution, the Ancien Régime parlement were quite different. They formed a powerful component of the French judicial system, serving as the highest courts of appeals for their region. ...


2

Supreme energy and intelligence. The best way to gauge a people's energy and intelligence is by looking at their intellectual achievements, not by testing what's-so-called IQ. One glimpse of art, science, literature text books will show who is extremely superior in terms of energy and intelligence. Why the Europeans acquired such supreme intelligence is ...


2

I think the Wikipedia article about Africa's history might be a good an entry point for your research as any other. It's mainly an overview which just shortly mentions the most important kingdoms and civilizations, but it has lots of links presumably (I didn't check them) leading to more detailed articles.


2

Is it racism when Kyrgiz people kill Uzbeks? They are both of the same biological race, and both Muslims of the same faith but they kill each other because of their ethnicity. This kind of "racism" was widespread in the ancient times. But I doubt the skin color meant much in old times because at those times people could not travel large distances and those ...


1

Helen Tilley spent the better part of a decade investigating development in Africa, especially in relation to British Parliamentary funding of resource projects addressing issues like clean water, mosquitos and flooding. Her most recent book, Africa as a Living Laboratory: Empire, Development, and the Problem of Scientific Knowledge, 1870-1950, is a ...


1

At home I have a nice dog-eared copy of Colin McEverdy's The Penguin Atlas of African History. Of course Africa is a big place, and things developed fairly independantly north and south of the Sahara for most of its history. But if you are interested in the development all all African civilizations (From Bushman to Arab), this is the best resource I know ...


1

There was very pronounced racism among Arabs, among others. While the dates are hard to pin down, a LOT of the tales in "1001 Nights" have pretty racist things in them.



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