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5

Good question with several answers. First a nod to Lennart for pointing out that Germany grew just like France and Britain and the USA, so a certain amount of "a rising tide floats all boats." However there were some factors that advantaged Germany more than the others: Highly educated, savings-minded workforce whose population losses were instantly ...


2

In Greece, Mesopotamia, Carthage, Egypt, Rome, slaves were widely traded and used in a chattel slavery system for economic purposes. The slaves did not typically have rights and could be very poorly treated or even killed. Highly skilled slaves were treated better and more likely to earn their freedom, because threats of violence alone cannot make someone be ...


4

No Slavery is an incredibly broad topic, with different cultures and different times practicing different forms of slavery. It also isn't a topic in which I consider myself an expert. So I'll offer a very broad brush response. definition of terms "economically effective" - I'm going to interpret this phrase to mean that a system is more economically ...


3

First imagine a world without any coinage, where all purchases and sales must be achieved through barter. Further imagine that there are well accepted equivalencies, between all goods so that an average ox is understood to be worth 10 average sheep, 8 average goats, etc. Three of those goods will of course be copper, silver and gold, so that there will be ...


2

Let's look at inflation first. "when the coins are too much altered, the result is inflation." When coins are altered, they are almost always debased - other metals are mixed with silver to allow the government to mint more coins with the same amount of specie. So if I have enough silver to produce 1000 coins, and I mix in 50% tin, I can now ...


2

There's just more scientists around today. Population has grown tremendously over the past 200 years. On top of that, our means, tools, and time available to spend on research has grown too. And much faster communication allows ideas to spread much faster, allowing other scientists to build on what you did immediately, rather than 10 years later. At the ...


2

Larger population means that even if the percentage of people with the necessary skills and interests is the same, the total number of people with those skills and interests is much greater. Combined with the ever increasing base of scientific data on which to build (as pointed out by Andy) this causes an increase in the potential for scientific progress ...


3

New technologies build on previous technologies, so technological growth is cumulative. The rate at which it is developed, and hence accumulated, depends upon the number of people who can work on producing new technologies. The number of people engaged depends on technologies that give a proportion of the population the time to do things that are not ...


8

From what I've gathered from books (e.g. Joseph Baratz' A Village By the Jordan: The Story of Degania and Daniel Gavron's The Kibbutz: Awakening from Utopia) kibbutzim were of critical importance to Israel prior to and in the immediate period after of the state's foundation. They were both collective and agricultural enterprises, they also offered local ...


4

Are there instances where collective farming has actually brought benefit to the population of an area Yes. The shift towards peasant collective farming, generally involving strip rotation of shares, from enslaved farming brought widespread improvements to the standard of living of medieval peasants in England. Collective farming of this nature was ...



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