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Deflation is when a given coin buys more and more goods over time. Inflation is the reverse: more and more coins are needed to buy the same thing. If an economy grows, but the money supply (the total amount of gold and silver available) stays the same, then the money will get more valuable over time (deflation). For example, if the country has 1000 pounds ...


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According to a different set of GDP estimates (which are PPP-adjusted to facilitate cross-national comparisons), Japan's economy is roughly in proportion to @TomAu's estimates of Japan's martial contributions. For example Tom estimates that Japan contributed more to the war effort than Italy. In every year of the war, Wikipedia estimates that Japan had a ...


4

As the wikipedia article on consols mentions, Britain actually started issuing these perpetual bonds in 1751. So their use during the Napoleonic Wars some fifty or so years later was far from unprecedented. As noted in the comments, the attractiveness of this style of loan (to the borrower) was a combination of the low interest rate and putting the ...


0

Why did Britain decide to issue perpetual bonds during Napoleonic era? They needed money to pay for war expenses. It was possible to sell the bonds without the promise to pay back the principle. Cheap year by year! Smart but unwise, see Greece today. Interest could be lowered at will, so no reason ever to pay back. Year by year there never was a ...


1

For your specific problem a more direct approach might be to compute the agricultural potential given a particular set of technologies. If you can figure out how much grain a farmer could produce, then you can potentially estimate what fraction of the population had to be farmers. There are studies of this topic. For example, "Estimating the agricultural ...


2

Using workers' income figures in specific sectors may be difficult, since some sectors relied a lot on slaves (e.g. mining), and others may have used different sources of manpower in different geographic regions (e.g. agriculture: free workers in Italy, slaves in Sicily). So the income aproach may be difficult. Likewise, the expenditure approach may be ...


3

The referenced page which states that Napoleon required a guarantee from employers that workers wages would remain high. It merely says that "[Napoleon's] police sometimes prevented employers from lowering wages as part of a carefully calculated balancing act". Also, it can be imagined that wars caused a labor shortage which raised wages. (based entirely ...


2

I think you are talking about the rise of mercantilism. Mercantilism can be thought of as an outgrowth of military competition. As armies became more expensive (due in part to the culmination of bastard feudalism), rulers in the 16th century realized that they needed to improve state revenues. However, existing modes of governance really were not up to the ...


5

There are a few assumptions here that, in my opinion, muddy the waters. Let me quickly rephrase. In the time of Charlemagne, governance was exercised by a king and his military advisers. Currently governance is exercised by a state supported by economic advisers. First, your premise is false. Charlemagne was supported by non-military advisers - ignoring ...



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