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The cash amounts of the taxes were not particularly high, but to the colonist's eyes this was besides the point. The success of the French and Indian war was enabled by a cooperation between the colonial governments and the British military. When a campaign was required, General Redcoat would go to a colonial legislature and say 'we need 500 men and their ...


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The issuance of fines or taxes on luxury goods is part of the general phenomenon known as sumptuary laws. The Wikipedia article gives a good history. Also, note that Roman censors had the power to fine anybody they thought was living in a luxurious or dissipated manner. The Romans, in fact, made a huge deal out of enforcing puritanical morality on their ...


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Not sure they were the first laws primarily motivated by "moral outrage" but the the effects on the poor of cheap, low quality gin certainly was a factor in passing the British Gin Acts of 1736 and 1751 - cf Hogarth's Gin Lane and Beer Street. http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gin_Craze#Increased_Consumption_of_Gin


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There isn't anything approaching annual time series data on these questions, so economic historians have to estimate them from other data. Kugler and Bernholz estimate that Spanish inflation averaged 1.1-1.4% per annum in the 16th century. This may sound low by modern standards, but it was quite high considering that early modern economies generally exhibit ...


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Historians like Dunning and Phillip are writing half a century before the cliometric revolution in economic history, which has completely changed how we view this question. Fogel and Engerman's 1974 "Time on the Cross" was quite influential in showing how profitable slavery was for those who practiced it. In particular, plantations were more efficient ...


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the main benefit was not getting the government arrested and replaced by others who were more likely to do as they were told by the USSR. The GDR government was under a lot of pressure from Moscow to "do something" about the flood of their citizens fleeing to the west. That flood of refugees, most of them the brightest and best educated of the country, was ...


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Very broad question and it also ignores the fact that feudal and cast-based societies were redistribute wealth different way than present democratic societies. However let me give an angle that may be useful (no data, sorry): The huge economic difference between India and the UK is coming from the significantly earlier industrialization of the UK. However ...


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When people are not happy, they revolt against the rulers, the french revolution followed a famine. So, if you research the number of revolutions and popular uprisings through the centuries, and list them, you may have an indication of living standards by area. It has to be one of the simplest ways to answer your question. it's a direct measurement of ...


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GDP per capita is an indicator of living standards. A solid comparison of share of GDP can be found in this link Since 01AD until today the world's changed quite a lot. But until 1700AD the balance of wealth hadn't. For the past two centuries the share of the world's GDP has shifted to the west to Europe through imperialism, and technological ...


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In Carolingian times, the yield of grain on average soil was 2:1. For each seed planted, you harvested two. Starting with the eleventh century, an upward trend brought agricultural productivity to an average of 4:1. This meant 8-12 bushels (200-300 kg) of grain per acre. Let's just conclude that in Carolingian times, in Western Europe, an acre of land gave ...


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It highly depends on what you grew on it, where, and how many tools you had at your disposal. Generally vegetables had higher yields, but were harder to harvest. So the reason why grain became a staple food is that there was just enough place for it to be grown. Legumes were also a staple food; they provided more calories per hectare besides baring much ...


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About about 0.25 wallach was enough to support a family (so at least two adults and all they children) on a good land in Lithuanian territory at about 1600. The size of wallach was about 21.3 ha so 21 3000 square meters or 52.6 acres. Wallach itself was a norm for a relatively easy, descent life. Family was a team, and all had they specialized work roles, ...



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