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11

I think this is not specific to the U.S. at all. (Although I freely admit that, from what I know American education, it would certainly benefit from being less concerned with only the U.S., and a bit more with the rest of the world.) Politics had always been a game of power, and, historically, the only, or at least the most successful, way to gain power ...


10

This question has had me curious for the longest time. It seems I have finally dug something up. I site this document which is a UCLA 1935-1936 Student Catalog From Page 59 The College of Letters and Science , with a curriculum leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts It seems the curriculum for a BA was divided into three parts (quoted from page ...


8

The biggest primary factor was to spread religion. When Christian missionaries came to Hawai'i in the early 1800s, they immediately began to institutionalize the conversion process. They even went so far as to send a printer in the first group of missionaries to quickly get scripture into the local language. It was quite opportune timing for the ...


8

Latin was indeed the lingua franca of the period, and very, very few people could read or write. There just wasn't a lot of reason to be able to do so; paper was not introduced to Europe until the 1200s, so before then if you wanted to write anything down you had to go through the painstaking process of creating a piece of vellum or parchment for what it was ...


7

James B. Conant, a higher education reformer and president of Harvard University from 1933-1953, adopted the Scholastic Aptitude Test (now known simply as the SAT) for Harvard admissions in 1941. Harvard was one of the last selective Northeastern schools to drop its separate entrance examination— though it had used the SAT for evaluating scholarship ...


7

All about the money. As merchants and trade became important you needed lawyers, to learn law you had to go and find a teacher. The teachers hung around in towns that had important trade links (Paris, N. Italy, Oxford) and the students turned up looking for the teachers. Gradually instead of hanging around in bars and seedy rooming houses the students and ...


6

According to this government site, illiteracy has been shrinking almost steadily from 1870 on (with one little hiccup between 1947 and 1950). According to Wikipedia, the US had a very high literacy rate in 1870, and this was during the creation of a national public school system. With increasing school availability and legal requirements to attend, it ...


6

The slaveholding colonies and states of the American South are one such example, where the slaveholding class used illiteracy as a way to make it easier to control the enslaved population. An act from South Carolina of 1740 made it a fineable offense to teach slaves to read or write: Whereas, the having slaves taught to write, or suffering them to be ...


5

Subsistence farmers don’t need to read a calendar to go about their business. The knowledge they need can be passed down very effectively in oral form. If they practice shifting cultivation, as is still done in many parts of the world, they don’t actually own the land they farm, so inheritance in our terms isn’t an issue. What’s more, usually the “common ...


5

The earliest mention of deafness and otology can be found in the Ebers Papyrus (1550 BC), a list of medical remedies and spells against common ailments. The Ancient Egyptians of the era treated various ear diseases, including the "Ear-that-Hears-Badly", by injecting olive oil, red lead, ant eggs, bat wings and goat urine into the ears1. In general, the ...


5

I remember being a high school reader in history. I suggest relating to some of the following sources: Always read stuff you find engaging. This might be topically (revolutions) or chronologically (the 1950s) or spatially (post-war France) or transnationally (the Indian Ocean trade system). You might not be aware of some fields of history, such as ...


5

I tried looking at the biographies of known native Africans. An obvious starting point is Nelson Mandela, he went to the University of Fort Hare. Close but no cigar: that university was founded in 1916. However, his biography also mentions University of South Africa (founded as University of the Cape of Good Hope in 1876) and University of the Witwatersrand ...


5

The main Greek innovation in education was the Socratic Method. This mainly involved the teacher questioning the students, hopefully leading them to a better understanding of things that way. I don't know much about Egyptian education, but between the times of Alexander and Mohammed the upper classes in Egypt were culturally Greek anyway. By comparison you ...


5

Whithout any doubt, the history part of the contemporary Russian culture is absolutely military. About 95% of Russian alternative history novels are about how this or that war could be replayed. Is it due to Russian agressivity? It seems so... But ... the utterly unmilitary culture of the contemporary Czech republic is very much interested in ancient wars, ...


5

I interpret the question as, "where and when in world history, was the lack of literacy of a population held against it, despite other qualities? One example was in 14th century England, where religious dissenters known as "lollards" were attacked, not for their religious beliefs (per se), but for the ignorance (of Latin) and the Latin catechism. Another ...


4

It's part of the Greco-Roman tradition and culture that has been around roughly 5000 years. I recommend Victor Davis Hanson's Carnage and Culture for a full review of this tradition. You can find its start with various Greek philosophers and playwrights who used war and conflict as the basis for their stories. Later authors, from Plutarch to St. Augustine ...


4

Volunteer, volunteer, volunteer Seriously, I would highly recommend that you try and volunteer a little bit of your time with a local historical society, or history museum. I'm sure that you can find an organization that takes young students like yourself and that experience will give you an idea of how some organizations handle the presentation of history ...


4

Brown overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) which established the legal precedent for "separate but equal". The NAACP brought suit in 5 cases (Briggs v. Elliott, Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, Gebhart v. Belton and Bolling v. Sharpe) that were combined with Brown to be heard in the Supreme Court. Prior to Brown, segregation cases ...


4

For those interests, I would highly suggest picking up a set of Colin McEvedy's Penguin Historical Atlases. The ones covering the periods you seem to care about are The New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (perhaps less so this one), and The Penguin Atlas of Modern History: to 1815. He has his quirks, biases, and ...


4

Two major reasons for this : The introduction of printing through Johannes Gutenberg, and the Reformation which implied that every Christian should be able to read the Bible, which made reading accessible and interesting. The Reformation spread first among craftsmen and merchants who could read. The progressive introduction of paper in the 14th, 15th and ...


3

Universities (at least in the US) tend to give those out to famous people as favors for lecturing there. As such, having an "honorary" degree doesn't really mean a whole lot. There wouldn't be much incentive for making up a false story about somebody receiving one. It appears he did a speaking tour of the US in 1911, and did speak at several universities, ...


3

From Encyclopedia Brittancia Charles was the son of Philip I the Handsome, king of Castile, and Joan the Mad, and the grandson of Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, as well as of the “Catholic Kings” Isabella I the Catholic, of Castile, and Ferdinand II the Catholic, of Aragon. After his father’s death in 1506, Charles was raised by his paternal ...


3

Nothing. Absolutely nothing. EDIT: I have asked an older student and before the 1970s there was in fact a so-called "Hörergeld" "listener money" which was in the range of 100-200 Mark (comparable to 30-45 $) for half a year. The interesting thing is that is was not for the university, but for the professor, so while there was charging, the answer is still ...


2

Excellent question. I don't feel qualified to answer, but I'm a chagrined by the lack of answers so far. I'm going to take a pass on your first question (I think @Coelacanth has a good start in the comments). In college our first classroom discussion of Plato's dialogues, started when the professor made us stop reading after the first page and challenged ...


2

EITC employees usually came from the outer regions (ports and fishing villages). Some of the main ones where; Brighton, Hull, Liverpool and Dover. People would usually receive a sort of "page service" on one of the ships. Colonial officers of the Raj is probably the easiest one. These were usually officials that had done great deeds fighting in other ...


2

OK, found a reference for you. Кондаков, И. М. Преподавание психологии в Царскосельском лицее: А.С. Пушкин и А.И. Галич / И.М.Кондаков // Психологическая наука и образование. - 1999. - N3-4. - С. 80-91 I'm trying to digest it but it seems that psychology was treated more like a subset of philosophy, and the guy teaching it (Галич) as part of the class was ...


2

You have to balance the difficulty of learning the writing system against the benefits to an individual for them to do so. On the difficulty side, one easy thing to look at is the number of glyphs that have to be memorized. The first writing systems were pictographic and logographic. In essence, nearly every word had its own glyph. To give you an idea of ...


2

If you replace "literacy" with "access to information" you find that many governments were and are doing that to varying extent. The prime example today is North Korea that controls its people in part by controlling information. Another modern example is Russia that recently assumed government control over media that let it disseminate enough disinformation ...


1

You have two contradicting questions. Literacy makes a people more aware and restless. The British tried to impose English language with the aim of making a class of Indians who were Indian in look but English in character. However, it backfired and only served to hasten the demise of the British Raj and more importantly it has helped ease linguistic ...


1

Slightly off topic but in thinking about which university to go to, you should look at the professors teaching there: what are their fields? What are they publishing? Do you see yourself doing post-graduate work there? Once you have found the right place, it is trivial to see what entry level criterion there are. Then, make sure you exceed those to get ...



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