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18

More details can be found in the related Wikipedia article. University students typically had one of three sponsors: their own (wealthy) families the church the crown The admissions criteria and payments were set by the respective sponsors. That is the church and crown had their own "feeder" schools, and chose the best students of these to take ...


12

Both question and answer /comments appear very Americo-centric. I was born in 1949, just 2 years after the OP, and I cannot remember not knowing about the 2nd WW and the atrocities. We did not study the war at school, but as someone said, it was not "history" - it was our parent's and older siblings lived experience. Whilst the word "Holocaust" was not ...


11

Latin was indeed the lingua franca of the period, and very, very few people could read or write. There just wasn't a lot of reason to be able to do so; paper was not introduced to Europe until the 1200s, so before then if you wanted to write anything down you had to go through the painstaking process of creating a piece of vellum or parchment for what it was ...


11

I think this is not specific to the U.S. at all. (Although I freely admit that, from what I know American education, it would certainly benefit from being less concerned with only the U.S., and a bit more with the rest of the world.) Politics had always been a game of power, and, historically, the only, or at least the most successful, way to gain power ...


11

This question has had me curious for the longest time. It seems I have finally dug something up. I site this document which is a UCLA 1935-1936 Student Catalog From Page 59 The College of Letters and Science , with a curriculum leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts It seems the curriculum for a BA was divided into three parts (quoted from page ...


10

The biggest primary factor was to spread religion. When Christian missionaries came to Hawai'i in the early 1800s, they immediately began to institutionalize the conversion process. They even went so far as to send a printer in the first group of missionaries to quickly get scripture into the local language. It was quite opportune timing for the ...


8

All about the money. As merchants and trade became important you needed lawyers, to learn law you had to go and find a teacher. The teachers hung around in towns that had important trade links (Paris, N. Italy, Oxford) and the students turned up looking for the teachers. Gradually instead of hanging around in bars and seedy rooming houses the students and ...


8

Because Hermes Trismegistus told him the secret of the sacred writing and he read the walls of the pyramids of Unas.  Just kidding. Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus both wrote long accounts of the Egyptian gods. The words "Osiris", "Isis", and "Horus" are all Greek words, not Egyptian words. Milton makes extensive reference to both authors in his poems. ...


8

There appears to be an explanation in the book Generations by (the late) William Strauss and Neil Howe. It has to do with kinds of people, specifically generations, that became teachers immediately after World War II. The older of these two was the so-called World War II generation. This generation provided the soldiers that beat the Nazis, but having ...


7

James B. Conant, a higher education reformer and president of Harvard University from 1933-1953, adopted the Scholastic Aptitude Test (now known simply as the SAT) for Harvard admissions in 1941. Harvard was one of the last selective Northeastern schools to drop its separate entrance examination— though it had used the SAT for evaluating scholarship ...


6

According to this government site, illiteracy has been shrinking almost steadily from 1870 on (with one little hiccup between 1947 and 1950). According to Wikipedia, the US had a very high literacy rate in 1870, and this was during the creation of a national public school system. With increasing school availability and legal requirements to attend, it ...


6

I tried looking at the biographies of known native Africans. An obvious starting point is Nelson Mandela, he went to the University of Fort Hare. Close but no cigar: that university was founded in 1916. However, his biography also mentions University of South Africa (founded as University of the Cape of Good Hope in 1876) and University of the Witwatersrand (...


6

The slaveholding colonies and states of the American South are one such example, where the slaveholding class used illiteracy as a way to make it easier to control the enslaved population. An act from South Carolina of 1740 made it a fineable offense to teach slaves to read or write: Whereas, the having slaves taught to write, or suffering them to be ...


6

He had a very good education for the age – as Encyclopaedia Britannica says: The elder John Milton [...] enrolled his son John at St. Paul’s School, probably in 1620, and employed tutors to supplement his son’s formal education. [...] Educated in Latin and Greek there, Milton in due course acquired proficiency in other languages, especially Italian ...


6

Entrance varied dramatically by time and place, with students enrolling at Oxford or Paris around the age of 14 to study the liberal arts, and at Bologna around the age of 30 to study law. Historically the curriculum of a liberal arts degree was first the study of the trivium of grammar, rhetoric and logic, followed by the quadrivium of arithmetic, ...


5

Two major reasons for this : The introduction of printing through Johannes Gutenberg, and the Reformation which implied that every Christian should be able to read the Bible, which made reading accessible and interesting. The Reformation spread first among craftsmen and merchants who could read. The progressive introduction of paper in the 14th, 15th and ...


5

The earliest mention of deafness and otology can be found in the Ebers Papyrus (1550 BC), a list of medical remedies and spells against common ailments. The Ancient Egyptians of the era treated various ear diseases, including the "Ear-that-Hears-Badly", by injecting olive oil, red lead, ant eggs, bat wings and goat urine into the ears1. In general, the ...


5

I remember being a high school reader in history. I suggest relating to some of the following sources: Always read stuff you find engaging. This might be topically (revolutions) or chronologically (the 1950s) or spatially (post-war France) or transnationally (the Indian Ocean trade system). You might not be aware of some fields of history, such as ...


5

The main Greek innovation in education was the Socratic Method. This mainly involved the teacher questioning the students, hopefully leading them to a better understanding of things that way. I don't know much about Egyptian education, but between the times of Alexander and Mohammed the upper classes in Egypt were culturally Greek anyway. By comparison you ...


5

Whithout any doubt, the history part of the contemporary Russian culture is absolutely military. About 95% of Russian alternative history novels are about how this or that war could be replayed. Is it due to Russian agressivity? It seems so... But ... the utterly unmilitary culture of the contemporary Czech republic is very much interested in ancient wars, ...


5

Subsistence farmers don’t need to read a calendar to go about their business. The knowledge they need can be passed down very effectively in oral form. If they practice shifting cultivation, as is still done in many parts of the world, they don’t actually own the land they farm, so inheritance in our terms isn’t an issue. What’s more, usually the “common ...


5

I interpret the question as, "where and when in world history, was the lack of literacy of a population held against it, despite other qualities? One example was in 14th century England, where religious dissenters known as "lollards" were attacked, not for their religious beliefs (per se), but for the ignorance (of Latin) and the Latin catechism. Another ...


5

Teaching of English became universal starting in elementary school around 1910. Here is a summary of the history: This was the situation in 1872 the year after the Daimyos were disbanded: While on the subject of education, I may mention that there is among the Japanese of all classes, an universal desire for acquiring foreign languages, especially ...


4

It's part of the Greco-Roman tradition and culture that has been around roughly 5000 years. I recommend Victor Davis Hanson's Carnage and Culture for a full review of this tradition. You can find its start with various Greek philosophers and playwrights who used war and conflict as the basis for their stories. Later authors, from Plutarch to St. Augustine ...


4

Brown overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) which established the legal precedent for "separate but equal". The NAACP brought suit in 5 cases (Briggs v. Elliott, Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, Gebhart v. Belton and Bolling v. Sharpe) that were combined with Brown to be heard in the Supreme Court. Prior to Brown, segregation cases ...


4

For those interests, I would highly suggest picking up a set of Colin McEvedy's Penguin Historical Atlases. The ones covering the periods you seem to care about are The New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (perhaps less so this one), and The Penguin Atlas of Modern History: to 1815. He has his quirks, biases, and ...


4

Universities (at least in the US) tend to give those out to famous people as favors for lecturing there. As such, having an "honorary" degree doesn't really mean a whole lot. There wouldn't be much incentive for making up a false story about somebody receiving one. It appears he did a speaking tour of the US in 1911, and did speak at several universities, ...


4

Volunteer, volunteer, volunteer Seriously, I would highly recommend that you try and volunteer a little bit of your time with a local historical society, or history museum. I'm sure that you can find an organization that takes young students like yourself and that experience will give you an idea of how some organizations handle the presentation of history ...


4

I can't give you a definitive answer here, but I think the explanation is that the government of the day was swiftly moving away from emphasising government grants as being the sole method of providing funding to students and researchers, and towards a mix of methods of funding, and clearly had an interest in enabling the introduction of student loans. The ...


4

World War II was in many respects a "continuation" war of World War I, from which there were a lot of "unfinished" business. World War II brought "closure" to many of these things. Consider the following: 1, Yes, tanks planes, submarines, and other weapons were developed during World War I,but it wasn't until World War II that people realized how ...



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