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I found the answer on page 267 in: Oshiro, George M. “The End: 1929-1933.” In Nitobe Inazô: Japan’s Bridge Across the Pacific, edited by John F. Howes, 253–78. Boulder: Westview Press, Inc., 1995. “His last major appearance to a wider audience was an address to the Institute of International Affairs at Pasadena. He gave an address entitled, ‘A Japanese ...


The growth of literacy was a gradual process, but certainly during the Reformation (1520-1550) literacy grew significantly due to the wider availability of printed materials and proliferation of printing presses, which made books much cheaper. Most education was centered on the monasteries, which were occupied by people known as "friars" (brothers). Friars ...

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