Hot answers tagged

50

I'm going to say that England should not be considered as having been a colony of France. From the wiki page for colony a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign When William took power he did so on behalf of himself and not on behalf of France, and he ruled as King of ...


43

British policy on the continent has traditionally been to maintain the balance of power (this is also really a general European thing). This amounted to shifting alliances all over the continent. Though France and Britain are "traditional" enemies (as neighbours were wont to be in Europe), they certainly hadn't been at war for anywhere near "close to 1000 ...


34

The surname 'Hood' implied where the individual was from. For all purposes, there were many people with the last name. The name Robin Hood is accounted as not an uncommon name in the middle ages. There is a corpus of evidence that there were outlaw stories circulating about a Robin Hood during the reign of King John. However, there are cases of multiple ...


29

During the 1830s and 1840s. In the twenties dueling was still common. From 1815 to 1830 Castlereagh, Canning, and Wellington were responsible in turn for the government of England, and they all fought duels. In the thirties dueling died out under the pressure of public opinion, and in 1844 the amended articles of war stated that any officer who fought a ...


27

Although I can't answer for heraldry, there were a number of factors that influenced the red colour of English, then British military uniforms. During the 16th to early 20th centuries, primary colours and red especially helped to blur soldiers together, so that the enemy from a distance found it difficult to distinguish numbers and individuals accurately. ...


26

There was a separation between the noble french and the vulgar Old English. Or as I wrote in my comment: Who cares about the language of peasants I found a nice source for this assumption Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD): After William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England in 1066 AD with his armies and became king, he ...


26

I agree with much of Semaphore's answer, which shows that actually Britain and France were not in a state of perpetual war. But I think your question really relates to "What changed?" so I'll try to answer that. Firstly, the end of the Napoleonic era. The Battle of Waterloo and following months were the end of the Napoleonic wars, and the end of the "Big" ...


24

I wouldn't characterize post-Magna Carta England as having a weak central government. Compared to the Holy Roman Empire it had a very efficient central government, in which the parliament played an important role alongeside the king. The early English Parliament already had a House of Commons. Hence not only the nobility was given rights but the common ...


20

It shouldn't. Before conquering England, William the Bastard was Duke of Normandy, a political entity that had been separate from West Francia (by 1066, the Kingdom of France) since 911 C.E. The Normans spoke a dialect of French, and William and his ancestors were technically vassals of the kings of France, but it was still more or less a separate entity. ...


20

According to the British Monarchy website: The first and simplest method of knighting was that used on battlefields, when the candidate knelt before the Royal commander of the army and was 'stricken with the sword upon his back and shoulder' with some words such as 'Advances Chevalier au nom de Dieu'. (The action of touching the sword on the ...


19

As I recall from my readings, the floor of the theatre was where the masses sat, when they attended. Most would probably be drunk, considering the state of water sanitation at the time beer was the favored drink over raw water, and most would probably be ill-mannered. The well-to-do when they attended sat in the box seats above the "rabble", so that should ...


19

Modern practice is this, according to An Heraldic Alphabet (p. 231, 1996 edition) by former Clarenceux King of Arms, J.P. Brooke-Little: (edited to add -- this was a new addition to the 1996 edition, mentioned as a change in the heraldic laws.) "...If a woman entitled to arms marries a man who does not have arms, she may continue to use her maiden ...


19

It looks like it might fit a padlock of a design similar to this: The padlock is locked by inserting the shackle (u-shaped part) into the body so that the ward springs (arrowhead shaped part of the shackle) clip into it. The key is used by inserting it into the slot of the body so that the holes in the key align with the shackle and any other pins in the ...


18

Most likely because it was signed by Sir Robert Howard of Ashtead, Surrey[1], son of Thomas Howard the 1st Earl of Berkshire. As a royalist, he was made Clerk of Patents in Chancery[2] in June 1660, presumably as a reward. He appears to have stayed in that position until 1664[3]. Letters patents, including royal charters, are not signed by the Lord Privy ...


18

If it was really Latin that you saw, then it might have been: Surge aut sis eques in nomine Dei 1 Stand up as a knight, in the name of God. This is how William Camden described the ancient ceremony in his Britannia. There are variations, such as substituting vel for aut. I'd be a bit surprised if the site you originally found actually used Latin, ...


17

According to Wikipedia, it was 30 years at birth. However, the reason for such mortality age is due to infant mortality. If you managed to survive until the age of 21, you could expect to live until 45 or (depending on source) mid 60's. Health A millennium of health improvement The average life expectancy for a male child born in the UK between ...


17

The first attempt at unification was sparked by succession disputes, after Margaret of Scotland died in 1290. This lead to a series of conflicts, spanning from 1296 to 1357, known today as the Wars of Scottish Independence. Scotland retained its status as an independent nation after the end of the wars. The claim of Mary, Queen of Scots to the English ...


16

In general, dating was complicated, and different conventions existed simultaneously in England at that time. For the specific example of William the Conqueror's coronation, we have different sources within the following decades implying that it was in 1066 or 1067, anno Domini. The precision sought in the question did not exist, at least in the same form ...


15

The legal situation was not as clear as the question assumes, because neither of the reasons cited were valid at the time. While people often apply Salic Law to the dispute in 1328, this is ahistorical - Salic Law had long been defunct by then. Royal succession was not fixed in legislation, but instead shaped by customs that had evolved over the centuries. ...


14

If you accept that the Parliament of the United Kingdom currently has "sovereign and uncontrollable authority in making, confirming, enlarging, restraining, abrogating, repealing, reviving, and expounding of laws, concerning matters of all possible denominations, ecclesiastical, or temporal, civil, military, maritime, or criminal ... it can, in short, do ...


14

Robin Hood is an English folk hero and not based in fact. Robin and his fellows were a popular subject in early printed texts, with their low price and wide appeal, and it is in the early days of printing that he finally comes into his own as a literary figure. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, antiquarians were especially invested in ...


14

Columbus sailed the ocean blue in fourteen hundred and ninety two; a full 55 years before Henry died in 1547. Henry was not known for his chaste ways, so it is quite conceivable that he would have been an early contractor of a new venereal disease. The most recent excavations at Pompeii have revealed remains two twin teen-aged sisters, apparently in a ...


14

I don't know about London to Nottingham in particular, but the fastest mail was transported on dedicated mail coaches. These saw improvements in speed thanks to better roads... The following is from Her Majesty's Mails, William Lewins, (London, 1865), pg 145 Most of the post-roads were macadamized before the year 1820, and it was then that the ...


13

According to the Wikisource document that article is based on, Wikipedia accidentally left out an "fl." in the age span (i.e. it ought to be "MISSELDEN, EDWARD (fl. 1608-1654)"). "fl." (Latin Floruit) means "flourished", i.e. we know that Misselden was active in the period 1608 to 1654, but we don't know when he was born or died. If that's true, then he ...


13

The phrase is a likely reference to the book, Don Quixote. Thomas Paine is familiar with the book and uses the imagery in the "Rights of Man" to attack Edmund Burke: In the rhapsody of his imagination, he has discovered a world of windmills, and his sorrows are, that there are no Quixotes to attack them.” Don Quixote follows the adventures of ...


12

The reasons are so numerous and overlapping. There would have been very little to gain from establishing dominance of French culture. People did not form sympathies or loyalties based on language or culture – that development had to wait for another 700 years or so. It would have been completely impossible to enforce such a ban. There were no such ...


12

The last king to lead in battle is George II in the Battle of Dettingen. The last one to die in battle was Richard III at Bosworth.


12

Joan of Arc Or rather, God. Before her arrival on the scene, it had appeared to English and French alike that God was on England's side. Her contribution to the lifting of the siege of Orleans gave some hope to the Dauphinist cause, and for a while, a belief that God was on their side. The emphatic victory at Patay and the coronation of Charles VII further ...


11

The problem started with the "flight of the Earls" in 1607. After losing a war to England, the Catholic Ulster nobles Hugh O'Donnell, Hugh O'Neil, and others, fled Ireland for Europe. Meanwhile, England brought in Protestant "settlers" from Scotland to "pacify" Ulster. Thus, the formerly most rebellious province of Ireland became the most pro British. These ...


11

There wasn't such a huge distinction between high culture and low culture at the time, especially in the early english drama. Some of the earliest english drama, including the mirable and mystery plays, were put on by guilds, and had a rather amateurish quality.



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible