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31

The surname 'Hood' implied where the individual was from. For all purposes, there were many people with the last name. The name Robin Hood is accounted as not an uncommon name in the middle ages. There is a corpus of evidence that there were outlaw stories circulating about a Robin Hood during the reign of King John. However, there are cases of multiple ...


25

There was a separation between the noble french and the vulgar Old English. Or as I wrote in my comment: Who cares about the language of peasants I found a nice source for this assumption Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD): After William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England in 1066 AD with his armies and became king, he ...


23

Although I can't answer for heraldry, there were a number of factors that influenced the red colour of English, then British military uniforms. During the 16th to early 20th centuries, primary colours and red especially helped to blur soldiers together, so that the enemy from a distance found it difficult to distinguish numbers and individuals accurately. ...


16

I wouldn't characterize post-Magna Carta England as having a weak central government. Compared to the Holy Roman Empire it had a very efficient central government, in which the parliament played an important role alongeside the king. The early English Parliament already had a House of Commons. Hence not only the nobility was given rights but the common ...


16

As I recall from my readings, the floor of the theatre was where the masses sat, when they attended. Most would probably be drunk, considering the state of water sanitation at the time beer was the favored drink over raw water, and most would probably be ill-mannered. The well-to-do when they attended sat in the box seats above the "rabble", so that should ...


14

Columbus sailed the ocean blue in fourteen hundred and ninety two; a full 55 years before Henry died in 1547. Henry was not known for his chaste ways, so it is quite conceivable that he would have been an early contractor of a new venereal disease. The most recent excavations at Pompeii have revealed remains two twin teen-aged sisters, apparently in a ...


13

According to Wikipedia, it was 30 years at birth. However, the reason for such mortality age is due to infant mortality. If you managed to survive until the age of 21, you could expect to live until 45 or (depending on source) mid 60's. Health A millennium of health improvement The average life expectancy for a male child born in the UK between ...


13

The first attempt at unification was sparked by succession disputes, after Margaret of Scotland died in 1290. This lead to a series of conflicts, spanning from 1296 to 1357, known today as the Wars of Scottish Independence. Scotland retained its status as an independent nation after the end of the wars. The claim of Mary, Queen of Scots to the English ...


12

Modern practice is this, according to An Heraldic Alphabet (p. 231, 1996 edition) by former Clarenceux King of Arms, J.P. Brooke-Little: (edited to add -- this was a new addition to the 1996 edition, mentioned as a change in the heraldic laws.) "...If a woman entitled to arms marries a man who does not have arms, she may continue to use her maiden ...


11

According to the Wikisource document that article is based on, Wikipedia accidentally left out an "fl." in the age span (i.e. it ought to be "MISSELDEN, EDWARD (fl. 1608-1654)"). "fl." (Latin Floruit) means "flourished", i.e. we know that Misselden was active in the period 1608 to 1654, but we don't know when he was born or died. If that's true, then he ...


11

Robin Hood is an English folk hero and not based in fact. Robin and his fellows were a popular subject in early printed texts, with their low price and wide appeal, and it is in the early days of printing that he finally comes into his own as a literary figure. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, antiquarians were especially invested in ...


11

The reasons are so numerous and overlapping. There would have been very little to gain from establishing dominance of French culture. People did not form sympathies or loyalties based on language or culture – that development had to wait for another 700 years or so. It would have been completely impossible to enforce such a ban. There were no such ...


11

The phrase is a likely reference to the book, Don Quixote. Thomas Paine is familiar with the book and uses the imagery in the "Rights of Man" to attack Edmund Burke: In the rhapsody of his imagination, he has discovered a world of windmills, and his sorrows are, that there are no Quixotes to attack them.” Don Quixote follows the adventures of ...


10

The problem started with the "flight of the Earls" in 1607. After losing a war to England, the Catholic Ulster nobles Hugh O'Donnell, Hugh O'Neil, and others, fled Ireland for Europe. Meanwhile, England brought in Protestant "settlers" from Scotland to "pacify" Ulster. Thus, the formerly most rebellious province of Ireland became the most pro British. These ...


10

Actually, Richard had acquired that name before he went on the Crusades. Richard and two of his brothers rose up in rebellion against their father, Henry II. They went to France to obtain the support of Louis VII, and it was Louis who actually knighted Richard. This established his initial ties to the French. When the brothers set out to attack their ...


10

Short Answer The second one. Long Answer Many historians believe that at the very beginning King Henry VIII was driven more by personal reasons than theological reasons. Quite a lot of good sources are cited in this wikipedia article and this one. It all started with Henry's troubles with Queen Catherine --his first wife. Henry was obsessed with a male ...


9

There wasn't such a huge distinction between high culture and low culture at the time, especially in the early english drama. Some of the earliest english drama, including the mirable and mystery plays, were put on by guilds, and had a rather amateurish quality.


9

In Desmond Seward's book on the hundred years war, he introduces Henry thus: In the national legend Henry V remains the most heroic of English Kings. He is the glorious conquerer who broke the French chilvary at Agincourt and won the throne of France for his son's inheritance. Henry V is obviously best known for his military conquests. His military ...


8

If you accept that the Parliament of the United Kingdom currently has "sovereign and uncontrollable authority in making, confirming, enlarging, restraining, abrogating, repealing, reviving, and expounding of laws, concerning matters of all possible denominations, ecclesiastical, or temporal, civil, military, maritime, or criminal ... it can, in short, do ...


8

I'm not familiar with the television series you're referring to, but it is generally good advice not to take to much from watching TV. There was plenty of variance in names accross the country; plenty of people were called George, William, Robert, Norman, Christopher, Andrew, Luke, John, James, Oliver, Henry etc. However, there was a certain tendency to ...


8

In addition to what you list, the organizational structure, bookkeeping of the monarchs, and relative literacy levels (albeit not high levels absolutely) helped enable a democratic system to emerge. Townhalls and church organizations allowed for some census and accountability to emerge. The later monarchs kept relatively accurate and complete tax records ...


8

In the late part of 1858, Count Charles Montalembert of France was put on trial and prosecuted by the French government for writing an article titled "A Debate on India in the English Parliament". The French government took the position that certain passages of this article were "seditious and an outrage upon the existing Government" of France. (This link ...


8

One of the events that led to the War of the Roses was the birth of a son, Edward, Prince of Wales, to (Lancastrian) King Henry VI, and his Queen, Margaret of Anjou. Prior to that time, Richard, Duke of York (a cousin) had been next in line to the throne, and therefore had no incentive to fight. The birth of Henry's son "disinherited" him.


8

The last king to lead in battle is George II in the Battle of Dettingen. The last one to die in battle was Richard III at Bosworth.


8

There are three big questions there, with the second, on profitability of the colonies, a tricky one which can plunge us into discussion and the last, on why states bother, quite broad. Others may like to weigh in on them and I'll focus on your first part, "I have been told by many acquaintances that the loss of the thirteen colonies actually BENEFITED the ...


8

Most people in medieval England would have gotten their food from subsistence farming on land rented from a manor and payed for in labour, while during the Industrial revolution most people in England would have lived in cities. The question is if the enclosures was responsible for the supply of labour to factories. The answer is no. Enclosing land was a ...


7

They were ALL French. The House of Plantagenet (especially early on), in fact ALL of the Angevins, are French. They all spoke French (or a dialect thereof) as a FIRST language. Richard himself didn't speak English.


7

I know this is an old question, but I feel the need to comment for those who might find this. First, there is a really good book on the origins of baseball -- Baseball Before We Knew It, by David Block. If you have an interest in the topic I highly recommend it. It is not so much that one of the two games was invented first, but more likely that they both ...


7

England at the time had a fairly widespread system of parish registers, which recorded the christenings, marriages and burials of many people, although it was a bit patchy at first. You can search a good selection of the records at the website www.famlysearch.org. I've just done that and seen that the frequency of first names from births from 1485 to 1603 ...


7

They are two lions argent supporting the Royal Arms which also sports a lion. That said, Edward IV's list of approved badges includes a Wolf argent (of Mortimer). His grandmother was Anne de Mortimer.



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