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The Netherlands mainly has so-called 'waterburchten' or castles surrounded by water on all sides. Best-known example is Muiden Castle, founded around 1280. Today it is accessible as museum and mainly features the middle ages and the 17th century. It was almost demolished in the 19th century after a century of neglect but today is regarded as probably the ...


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Beaumaris Castle, North Wales - it was actually unfinished, and is almost in the same state as when it was abandoned: Caernarfon Castle, North Wales - while the castle and town walls have been rebuilt to some degree, most of the changes are in keeping with the original architecture. Also, some parts of the castle were unfinished (particularly, the Queen's ...


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Only one I have toured is in Wurzburg, Germany. Not sure what you mean by "altered" but certainly all the traditional functions of a medieval Castle appeared extant there (on the bend commanding the heights over a River to collect tolls, overlooking a prime invasion route into Northern Italy, near a salt road, having a keep, two fortified entrances, etc) "...


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You might like one of my local fortifications (The Portsmouth area is a fortification rich area with forts/castles dating from the 3rd to the 19th and probably 20th Century, all worth a look), Porchester castle is built on the remains of a Roman Fort of the Saxon Shore, with large parts of the Roman fortifications (including D shaped bastions) incorporated ...


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As you specified all of Europe, I thought I'd do a google on German "gut erhaltene Burgen" (well preserved castles). Select the Images result and you will find magnificent photos with specified locations. Many seem to be in Austria and/or Northern Italy, just from a glance. There's also a Wikipedia article on Castles in Germany, which seem to display some ...


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I can't speak directly for England, but will note that it was much more socially liberal than Austria-Hungary, where the following exchange took place: As recorded in Irving Chernev's "The Bright Side of Chess," a Mr. Epstein, head of the "securities" (stocks and bonds) exchange, was taking chess lessons from Wilhelm Steinitz, then champion of the world. ...


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What Samuel Johnson, the king, and parliament all ignored was the fact that the 13 colonies, unlike later 19th century colonies or some 18th century colonies, were not part of, nor totally possessions of, the Kingdom of Great Britain. Instead they were conceived when created to be miniature Englands where the English settlers would govern themselves with ...


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Very difficult to write a good answer; the source is an opinion, and it is difficult to cite sources to support someone else's opinion. That said, let's break phrase 1 down. Manners were an end in themselves and not merely a means to achieve propriety by conformity. Implicit in the second half of the sentence is the assumption that the reasons we ...



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