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What is certainly known about the possibility of a real King Arthur . . . is that it's possible he existed. That much is noncontroversial. However, I'm of the "where there's smoke, there's fire" school of thought, meaning I believe the "possible" can be pushed to become "probable." Here's the skeleton of my argument. The Battle of Badon is generally ...


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The ECB is basically a currency union with a common external tariff. To date Great Britain hasn't in fact "exited" anything as they have always had the British Pound. If Spain or Italy exits then you'll have a true "exit" imho as they are in the EZ in order to have the Euro and the protectionism and all that comes along with that. I would compare what is ...


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The Netherlands mainly has so-called 'waterburchten' or castles surrounded by water on all sides. Best-known example is Muiden Castle, founded around 1280. Today it is accessible as museum and mainly features the middle ages and the 17th century. It was almost demolished in the 19th century after a century of neglect but today is regarded as probably the ...


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Beaumaris Castle, North Wales - it was actually unfinished, and is almost in the same state as when it was abandoned: Caernarfon Castle, North Wales - while the castle and town walls have been rebuilt to some degree, most of the changes are in keeping with the original architecture. Also, some parts of the castle were unfinished (particularly, the Queen's ...


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Only one I have toured is in Wurzburg, Germany. Not sure what you mean by "altered" but certainly all the traditional functions of a medieval Castle appeared extant there (on the bend commanding the heights over a River to collect tolls, overlooking a prime invasion route into Northern Italy, near a salt road, having a keep, two fortified entrances, etc) "...


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You might like one of my local fortifications (The Portsmouth area is a fortification rich area with forts/castles dating from the 3rd to the 19th and probably 20th Century, all worth a look), Porchester castle is built on the remains of a Roman Fort of the Saxon Shore, with large parts of the Roman fortifications (including D shaped bastions) incorporated ...


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As you specified all of Europe, I thought I'd do a google on German "gut erhaltene Burgen" (well preserved castles). Select the Images result and you will find magnificent photos with specified locations. Many seem to be in Austria and/or Northern Italy, just from a glance. There's also a Wikipedia article on Castles in Germany, which seem to display some ...


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The very idea that a state has to be "national" is quite recent. So this question has no sense. In the beginning on 19th century the Sultan of the Ottoman empire was told that in Europe there are states where everyone speaks the same language and has the same religion. He laughed.


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Well, the phrase supranational came only into broader usage in the context of the EU. Apparently first written English usage in 1871. Usually, it connotes a voluntary pooling of power/competence by sovereign nations. This is in contrast to political entities that came into being (at least in part) due to military conquest or where parts were pressured into ...


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Since the notion of nation-states is rather new, I would say that there are many candidates for this title from ancient times.


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Bavaria stopped being a monarchy not even 100 years ago (1918). After that there were attempts to reinstate the monarchy (Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918). Sadly most of these attempts were destroyed by the Nazis (which gives me my very own reason to hate them). If any of these attempts had succeed, maybe WWII could have been delayed and the severity ...


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I think you can go back farther in the history. For example the Roman Republic created something like a supranational political union since it created a system constisting of foedus and socii, in which different cultures and cities got under the reign of Rome by bilateral contracts.


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I guess the definitions of all these terms are highly opinion based. Throughout history there always were loose federations of tribes (which arguably doesn't fit because they were not meant to last and/or were usually ruled by one of the tribes). The Holy Roman Empire was probably the first thing that meets your criteria. One thing that history shows us ...


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I think folks need to understand before there was the Sea "Western Europe" had a highway that ran all the way down its "littoral" (meaning Baltic down the Atlantic to Portugal.) This was a powerful hindrance to any "invader" unless they were able to conquer the entire Region...something historically the Germanic Peoples certainly tried quite regularly to do....


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It had more to do with the Reconquista. There was a social pattern that Aragon, Castile, and Portugal developed as they "reconquered" the Iberian Peninsula. This same pattern was how they colonized the new world very rapidly and very cheaply. In Reconquista a captain would gather fighting men with the promise of shares of any wealth or land they would ...


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The discovery of new world was nothing related with the moors. Spain with the most advanced army of europe by far that achieved to defeat the moors in Granada using the Arquebusier and cannons (western inventions) while the navy was as equal of any western countries. Columbus was autorished to meet the Spanish Queen in order to convince her to make an ...


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The question is to what degree the romance language speaking ancestors of the Modern Romanians in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia were descended from ancient Romanized Dacians and Roman colonists, and to what degree they were descended from Romance language speakers who arrived in the 3 Romanian regions from elsewhere sometime (probably over centuries) ...


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The English New Forest was planted by the conquering Normans in the 11th century, and replaced farmland that had been cleared about 1,000 years earlier. The soil around the area is very poor, and much of the cleared land had became semi-barren heath - so this is a very clear act of reforesting. The purpose of the reforesting was to provide the Norman ...


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Not as precise answer as I'd like, but it might lead you to the correct answer with further research. Googling for "hungarian heraldry crescent 13th century" yields at least one crescent, from the Sas coat of arms, which indeed has a crescent in it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sas_coat_of_arms Sas or Szász (origin: Slavic for "Saxon", Polish: Sas, ...


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My first thought was Japan. I found no clear reforestation, but there was a early switch to forest management. The Problem Japan had a serious deforestation problem 300 years ago, a consequence of unsustainable forest use that had been building up for a long time (Totman 1989). As long ago as 600-850 AD, construction booms in Nara and Heian, along ...


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Still another answer: Wikipediia's article on the palaeologus dynasty says about the Montferrat branch: The Paleologo-Oriundi, an extant line, descends from Flaminio, an illegitimate son of the last Palaiologos marquess John George. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palaiologos[1] Unfortunately Illegitimate sons didn't have any inheritance rights ...



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