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-4

The short answer, a lot less than the spice route, pining for a collapsed empire, emergence from the chaos of the collapse of Rome, Christianity; etc.. If anything, they weakened Italian states connected to Byzantium with the conquest of Byzantine and response by the Catholic church (the crusades because all religions have issues for a while). That may be ...


0

It's a fireman. If FD is for "fire department", he was a fireman probably somewhere in the US. Is the 2016 his badge ID?


0

There is an element of truth to what your friend told you. Civilization, so to speak, as manifested by the Italian Renaissance was sparked by a Spanish influence, however, the transfer was largely Christian in character. In other words, what kind of happened is that the Arabs invaded Spain and instituted a culture, then the Europeans defeated them, absorbed ...


0

You may want to read the following related question: Were there Gifts on the Days Leading Up to Christmas? To paraphrase what it says there: In Scotland, the twelve days of the Yule festival, called Da latha dheug na Nollaig, were celebrated according to the traditions of the viking invaders and they had the custom of giving gifts on all twelve days from ...


1

It is probably somewhat, but not entirely coincidental. We aren't 100% sure exactly why Christmas is celebrated when it is. The leading theory is that the date of Christmas was set to match (or rather, co-opt) a pagan Winter Solstice festival. The specific festival most point to was Sol Invictus. Historians going as far back as the 12th century were ...


11

"Islam influence"? "Italian Renaissance was caused by Islamic influence?" Of course these statements are incorrect. There was some influence of SCIENCE which was cultivated by scholars living in Islamic countries. Not the influence of Islam itself. More precisely, this influence was the following: During the Dark Age in Europe, most of the writing of ...


8

The two claims are not incompatible. There was certainly a very large Islamic influence on the Italian Renaissance. Many classical texts are largely known to us through transmission via the Islamic world. For example, see Wikipedia's article on the Transmission of the Greek Classics. Interpretations of the classical texts, like those of Aristotle, were ...


2

Having searched around the suggestions above, I eventually found this badge that is listed as a Imperial Russian Fire Society badge. As you can see, there are several similarities between it and the badge in your picture; the helmet and crossed axes mainly. So, I'd agree with the others when saying that it appears to be the uniform of a Russian ...


4

I just watched a report on TV in Germany about a book recently published "Als die Soldaten kamen" (When the soldiers came). The author researched the subject and interviewed numerous survivors all around Germany. She conservatively estimates some 860.000 women and children were being raped by the allies, the dark figure perhaps twice to three times as much ...


-4

Firstly, weapon technology is difficult to research because it is usually secret and gunpowder is no exception, so most important evidence is purely indirect; you have infer the invention from other evidence, such as metallurgical evidence. Secondly the idea that gunpowder came by the "silk road" or that it originated in China, Mongolia, Arabia or other ...


4

If you get sick and bring your disease to the place you are going (for instance, because you were on a long and exhausting journey), you are going to be ill at your destination. You may have carried the germ for a long time, since you are used to it, and it will only strike if/when you are weakened. If you get sick at your destination, it is not likely that ...


0

One of the biggest considerations, although hypothetical and not talked about, is simply the water. A great number of diseases and plauges during this era were due to waterborne pathogens. Europeans rarely drank plain water during the period, and you were more likely to find them drinking beer, wine, and mead just for this reason. It was commonly diluted ...


-1

Just to correct a couple of mistakes: (1) East Asia doesn't represent 60% of the world's population, more like 20%... (2) It's the East Asia where most skyscrapers are located... OR MORE PRECISELY, ONLY ONE COUNTRY ON PLANET EARTH MATTERED: CHINA. THERE'RE 7,000+ BUILDINGS IN CHINA THAT ARE TALLER THAN 100 METERS, TWICE AS MUCH AS THE REST OF WORLD ...


0

No mention of Stonehenge or other standing stones is made by Bede, Gildas, Nennius or anyone before them (Agricola, Pliny, Tacitus, Strabo etc). It is likely that in most cases the remains were too remote and too fragmentary to be noticed. In the case of Stonehenge, it is likely it was underground (like its twin Newgrange still is), and was excavated between ...


26

Several good answers have already been suggested, but there are a few very important points that are worth mentioning: Native Americans were badly unprepared for the emergence of epidemic disease among their populations, both genetically and culturally. According to this article from 2002, there was a major genetic component to it: far less immune system ...


8

Certainly some diseases are of New World origin. The Old World had more diseases and more deadly diseases simply because the population was much greater and in certain place more concentrated. It is likely that more New World natives were killed by disease than by violence. However, this is just as true in the Old World: many more have died of disease than ...


3

I'd say the syphilis was was quite a deadly illness contacted from the Native Americans. They were immune to it (wonder if they still areā€¦). Although it is not 100 % historically proved that the syphilis originated from the New World, it started spreading like crazy after its discovery.


73

Europeans were introduced to at least one important disease from the Americas (syphilis), but far more Old World pathogens were introduced to the Americas than vice versa. There are several reasons for this imbalance. European agriculturalists lived in closer proximity to disease vectors than did most Native Americans. A number of important diseases ...


4

@T.E.D says, "By and large, we really don't know. The timing of archeological finds with the language distribution when the historical record opens makes a very compelling case for the Celto-Italics being the chief people who introduced farming to Western Europe. So any pre-Celtic inhabitants would have been Mesolithic (hunter-gatherers)." No. ...


2

It is hard to tell since nobody aside from the Romans wrote...and Roman writers were rich city dwelling snobs who could hardly be bothered going to a distant province and writing down natural features there. There is some indirect evidence in the archaeologic record - Bronze Age settlers would sometimes add to or incorporate Mesolithic survivals into their ...


1

There is indirect reference to Arthur in Y Gododdin, which may date to the 7th century (but that is not certain, it could be as late as the 11th century)


4

Contrary to Tyler Durdens Answer there were reparations after WW2. There were several agreements that covered this, the one relevant to your question is the Potsdamer Agreement. As per Wikipedias breakdown if the protocol: Reparations from Germany. This section covered reparation claims of the USSR from the Soviet occupation zone in Germany. The ...


-1

No, there were no reparations because the Allies assumed control of the government in Germany by the Berlin Declaration, therefore there was noone to pay the reparations. The Soviets considered looting to be "reparations", however, there were no "negotiations" over the looting. There was a "negotiation" in the sense that the victors decided how to divide ...


2

First, it should be noted that there were a lot of Eastern Christians in the Middle East before during and after the Crusades. Some of their cultural descendents still live in Lebanon and Israel/Palestine and Iraq and Syria. There are many Christians in Egypt. If you're talking about Western colonists and their descendents, they almost certainly were all ...


1

The Saxons at one point in the 8-9th centuries settled in eastern Poland, Western Belarus. After an invasion of Bulgars and Slavs in the 10th century a sundering occurred in which a group of Saxons migrated to the lower Volga region. This tribe of Germanic east Saxons formed a small empire and expanded further east into the Kirghiz regions and possible as ...



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