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1

@Semaphore I agree with most of what you say, except one thing: unless they do so surreptitiously you can move defenders quicker across the "diameter" than the attackers can around the "circumference". It's what they mean by having interior lines. As to OP's idea of cattle, a general rule of food chains is that each step is only 10% efficient. Land that ...


0

They did not enclose corn fields and cattle pastures inside the walls of a castle. Such walls would be too long and need too many people to defend. Most of the food during a siege came from supplies. But supplies (of grain and other products like this) can be stored for very long time (for years). Many castles had wells. Some could have vegetable gardens. ...


14

Obviously this depends on how many defenders there were inside the castle. A castle garrisoned by a single person could probably live reasonably well off the chickens that might be in the bailey, for instance. He could even start a vegetable garden or some such. Realistically, no castle could hope to produce enough food to sustain a reasonably-sized ...


5

Simple answer, no. As you increase the size of your fortified enclosure to contain more land for cultivation, you obviously increase the length of the walls. The longer the walls are, the more people you require to defend them successfully. At the same time, those people actively defending the walls (in a siege) cannot be working the fields and tending the ...


1

To add another answer. Yes, there were plenty of nobles in Europe who could trace their ancestry to various Byzantine emperors. For example, Emperor Francis I of Austria was the heir through the house of Lorraine and the Gonzagas of Mantua of the junior branch of the Palaiologos dynasty who were Margraves of Montferrat descended from a younger son of ...


2

The number of Jews who lent money in the Middle Ages is unfortunately commonly over-estimated. The majority of Jews had jobs that did not involve money-lending. This is a fairly new historical discovery, though more and more research is coming out every year. For a good, scholarly, and responsible introduction see: Margolis, Ethan Levi, "Evidence that the ...


1

Male line descent from previous emperors, or any descent from previous emperors, was not legally necessary to become emperor. There were Emperors who seized the throne, and officials who were elected emperor when there was no obvious heir to the throne. Almost every single Emperor after Alexios I Komnenos (reigned 1081-1118) was descended from him either ...


0

The family of F. Hundertwasser comes from Pressburg (current Bratislava, capital of Slovakia), they moved to Vienna and changed their name. Their original name was Stowasser, which is combination of Slovak word "sto" (hundred) and German word "wasser" (water). Just to update you - Slovakia, Czech republic, Hungary and Austria were at that time one ...


2

All of these answer are flawed, because they're trying to deal with Europe as if the answer lay with the Renaissances. Romans and Greeks made many of the advancements that the Chinese were also making. It is not who had more technology, East or West, but what it was used for. Europe has seen empires rise and fall, but there has never been a truly united ...


0

So - Danube-Bulagian Huns are Yuezhi - because of the artificial cranial deformation, Volga Bulgars originate from Usuns, European Avars - from little Yuezhi. About the language - it is difficult, usually is assumed to be Turkic, but Pritsak (the leading specialist, Harvard), is using the term Hunno-Bulgarian: ...


0

European Huns were a conglomeration of Yuezhi and Usun tribes, probably mixed with Iranian Saka tribes. They cannot be Xiongnu because they were present at Europe borders even before 3 century AD. Read Zuev, he has very good ideas: " Absence of information about historical migration of S√ľnnu-Huns to the west before the end of the 4th century AD, and ...


1

The answer, of course, is that no single country can be blamed for a catastrophe as large as World War I. This argument is made at length by Christopher Clark's The Sleepwalkers, which some in the international relations community consider to be the new standard account of the causes of WWI. Clark starts with a structural approach to WWI, and adds to it ...



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