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Crossbows were "slowfiring" weapons. In this regard, they were less valuable than longbows. The advantage of a crossbow was its accuracy--in skilled hands. In this regard, it didn't take much to be a "random" crossbowman, but it did take a lot to be able to fire a few arrows accurately. That's not too different from a "marksman" or a "sharpshooter" being ...


7

It's not a question of "accurate shooting", it's a question of becoming expert in the use and maintenance of a crossbow and connection to an industrial culture for making and repairing them. Real crossbows are quite sophisticated devices and in their time were very expensive. The mercenary corps of crossbowmen were relatively wealthy soldiers who invested ...


9

Not exactly about crossbowmen, but I am currently reading about almogavars, another group of specially trained militia of the age, and I think I can extract some ideas. Almogavars were Catalano-Aragonese light infantry, with a special ability for throwing darts (some writers of the era claim they could kill knights). Some points for such specialization ...


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The reactions to the Treaty by the other powers were far from swift. On one hand, communication was slow and untrustworthy, on the other hand the New World was much smaller (as mentioned in another answer). England (still catholic) suffered from the consequences of the war of the roses (1455 - 1485) and had not yet the resources. France was suffering from ...


0

In 1497 John Cabot (aka Giovanni Caboto) claimed the Grand Banks off Newfoundland for England in the name of Henry VII. In 1524 I of France commissioned Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the coast of North America from Florida to the St. Lawrence. Ten years later, in 1534, Francis commissioned Jacques Cartier to explore the coast of Newfoundland and the St. ...


1

There is a famous quote attributed to Francis I of France: "The sun shines on me just as on the other: and I should like to see the clause in Adam's will that cuts me out of my share in the New World." See, e.g., Arciniega, Caribbean Sea of the New World.


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In 1494, there was no newspapers, no internet and no Netherlands. The "new world" at that time meant just a couple of islands about which population of England and France knew nothing. Neither they knew or cared about the treaty. So probably they did not react in any way on this treaty. Later, as more was discovered, and some countries expanded their ...


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They looked in England, but nothing came of it. During the Greek War of Independence, a commission investigated Cornwall, England for descendants of the Palaiologan dynasty. Supposedly, a certain Theodore Palaiologos of Pesaro in Italy died there in 1636. The Ferdinando Palaiologos mentioned in the question was one of his sons, and he died at Barbados on 3 ...


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The OED attests several use of the word familiar in Chaucer's works from the 1380's, in the usual sense of "pertaining to personal relations or family." However the earliest use attested to in the OED in the sense of a familiar spirit is from 1584: R SCOTT, Discovering Witchcraft, III. xv. 65 A flie, otherwise called a divell or familiar There is ...


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Fish was a major source of protein for peasants and regular folks in the Middle Ages. Forest hunting was often reserved for the lord's use, but special basket traps were placed into streams to catch unwary fish. There was actually a law in England that forbade masters from giving apprentices salmon for dinner more than three times a week, rather than the ...


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Some more info to complement what @PieterGeerkens has found: there's a very scholarly work on the subject on Google Books, Het Bier-oproer te Leeuwarden, in het jaar 1487, in zijne oorzaken en gevolgen by Jacob Dirks; sadly (for me), it's in Dutch and several passages are in Old Dutch or Frisian. But more or less, from what I managed to understand from ...


6

While the veracity of this site on the history of crime may be doubtful, it appears to be the only easily located English-language source The ban was put in place to protect sales of local suds in the city. All beer from outside the city, including that from Friesland’s biggest city, Haarlem, was banned. But despite this, one innkeeper kept ...


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Yes indeed. As early as 1346, corpses with symptoms of the Black Death seem to have been catapulted by the Mongols into the city of Caffa, Crimea during a siege. Reference: Wheelis M., Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa. Emerg Infect Dis, Sep 2002. Available here It may be noted that this use was not very effective, since knowledge of the ...


-1

Monarchy was the "default" form of government prior to Greece and Rome. These two countries experimented with "democratic" and "republican" forms of government, respectively. When these forms of government ultimately failed (after considerable success), the world went back to the status quo ante--i.e. monarchy.


4

As others have mentioned, leather has been to preferred choice of material for the soles of footwear for thousands of years. An interesting fact is that one of the technologies that gave the Romans such an advantage was their hardened leather sandals which allowed them to march 20 miles a day, every day. Untreated leather and animal skins would wear out ...


2

Leather for sure. My boots are all leather except for a piece of rubber at the bottom of the heel. "Tough, firm, resistant to wear" exactly describes traditional leather use. The soles and any other parts are replaced as needed; my "cheap" boots as a teen lasted 10 years, and my current Ostrich ropers are 15 years old and "like new". Nylon/rubber/synthetic ...


12

One kind of shoe not mentioned in the other answers are those using bast soles. "Bast" is fiber from tree bark. Bast shoes or lapti, were once worn by poorer members of Northern European cultures. These were usually made from birch or linden. They are woven like a basket, and so are quite distinct from the wooden clog or hard wooden-soled shoes mentioned in ...


9

In Europe, different demands were placed on shoes based on different climates. People around the Mediterranean tended to wear sandals with wooden soles and leather thongs due to the warmer climate. If complete coverage was required, the entire foot might be encased in leather. In some places or situations, a clog would be worn, particularly if one was ...


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Leather was probably the most common material. The most basic transportation technology of the medieval era was the foot ... Those who did not go barefoot ... wore simple shoes. These shoes were made from leather, including the flat sole. - Wigelsworth, Jeffrey R. Science and Technology in Medieval European Life. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. ...


1

Monaco was initially an Italian principality. It was founded by Genoa, and later became a colony of Spanish "Aragon," which took over large chunks of Italy. In the 19th century, after the French Revolution, it became a part of Sardinia. It was Monaco's association with "Italy" that tended to keep it out of the hand of France. In fact, most of the original ...


4

The answer is absolutely zero. The Belgae people of 50 BC and the Belgians of today are in all likelihood completely genetically different - the area was resettled by Romans, as you say, but also suffered (and most likely bred with) various different Germans, Goths, Huns, Magyars and finally Vikings before we reach somewhere resembling today's modern ...


6

1) Long before Rome fell it had abandoned Republicanism. After Diocletian and the Crisis of the Third Century the Emperors no longer felt any need to consult with the Senate. The Senate's role in government and in the legitimacy of the Empire was symbolic. This is the first flaw in the question - the transition between Republic and Monarchy occurred during ...


14

The short answer is that it didn't. Monarchies did not become more common, and Europe in general did not adopt absolutist rule, immediately after the fall of Rome. First, to answer your literal question, monarchies were already common before Rome fell. Imperial Rome was itself a monarchy, even though the imperators were initially careful to maintain the ...


0

The coming back part, is, IMHO well covered by Tom Au. But the disappearance is due to modernisation of the armies in the 15th Century as well as the appearance of fire-weapons. In the earlier Middle Age, the nobles were equiped with lances and mounted on horses. This lead to the tactical uses of heavy cavalries, which were, e.g., quite effective in the ...


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Generally speaking, Pytheas of Massalia had an apparently undeserved reputation as a "liar of the first magnitude" during antiquity. Much of what we know of this comes from Strabo, who is incidentally Pytheas' most vocal critic. Strabo argues against the authenticity of the Massilian's reports primarily based on the dimensions of Great Britain and the ...



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