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1

If you go to an old farm, you may be surprised to find out that a lot of the metal tools in the shed have the metallic part dating back 50 or even older than that without significant degradation other than rust and some chips. The wooden parts however have long been replaced with newer material, and the edge is periodically resharpened. I wouldn't be ...


5

Anywhere between "after first serious use" and "never". Assuming thorough, regular maintenance, a sword can last almost indefinitely - the oldest one I've held that has seen use was about 250 years old and might still be usable, given a good cleaning. The oldest one that I've seen was about 1500 years old and while thoroughy rusty, was worn (indicating ...


3

I found this: http://www.etymologie.info/~e/l_/lu-gr.html Der Name des Ortes "Schengen" (im Großherzogtum Luxemburg (Kanton Remich), der Namensgeberin für das "Schengener Abkommen", engl. "Schengen Treaty", "Schengen Agreement", 1985) soll keltischen Ursprungs sein und auf kelt. "scen" = dt. "Schilfwasser" zurück gehen. Im Jahr 877 erscheint der Name des ...


11

This is really more like a whole list of questions... 1. Why was de Grailly granted this title, which was apparently used by only a few families, and not some other title? I think there's a bit of confusion here. The prefix of Captal was the traditional title for the lords of Buch. Edward III granted Jean III de Grailly the fief of Buch which came with it ...


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How about Boudica's campaign in which the overabundance of disorganized peasants caused her to ultimately lose?


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Spartacus battles? Majority of his rebels used whatever they could scavenge. Not sure this is what your after though, as most of his followers were trained fighters.


0

Very broad question and it also ignores the fact that feudal and cast-based societies were redistribute wealth different way than present democratic societies. However let me give an angle that may be useful (no data, sorry): The huge economic difference between India and the UK is coming from the significantly earlier industrialization of the UK. However ...


0

When people are not happy, they revolt against the rulers, the french revolution followed a famine. So, if you research the number of revolutions and popular uprisings through the centuries, and list them, you may have an indication of living standards by area. It has to be one of the simplest ways to answer your question. it's a direct measurement of ...


1

GDP per capita is an indicator of living standards. A solid comparison of share of GDP can be found in this link Since 01AD until today the world's changed quite a lot. But until 1700AD the balance of wealth hadn't. For the past two centuries the share of the world's GDP has shifted to the west to Europe through imperialism, and technological ...


3

One of the fundamental reasons why the Roman Empire fell is the shortage of precious metals. The lack of coin is not the effect of the Empire's crumbling, it is it's cause. The shortage was both of silver and gold. Under Augustus the silver denarius was pure. Nero added 5-10% alloy. Trajan raised the alloy content to 15%. Marcus Aurelius to 25%. Under ...


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In Carolingian times, the yield of grain on average soil was 2:1. For each seed planted, you harvested two. Starting with the eleventh century, an upward trend brought agricultural productivity to an average of 4:1. This meant 8-12 bushels (200-300 kg) of grain per acre. Let's just conclude that in Carolingian times, in Western Europe, an acre of land gave ...


3

There really is a whole list of things that were done to prevent WW3. So I would have to consider this question to be a bit of a laundry list question. However, one of the major things that the US did to prevent WWII is to not make the same mistake that it made after the end of WWI. It did not beat the losing side into the ground. In fact, the allied nations ...


3

A French politician of Germanic-Luxembourgish background called Robert Schuman created the European Coal and Steel Community. This marked the start of European integration, which would in a few decades lead to the European Union. Ultimately, through fostering close economic ties, a true reconciliation between Germany and France was able to overcame the ...


2

The Christian (Nestorian) prelate Rabban Sauma, a native of Khan Baliq (modern Beijing), travelled to Italy and France in 1287-8 as a personal ambassador of the Great Khan Arghun to the Pope. His account of his travels is included in the biography of his pupil, the Patriarch Mar Yahbalaha. There is an English translation of the book in “The monks of Kublai ...


5

There is during the Han Dynasty a record of Gan Ying's travel to Europe. This is recorded in the Hou Han Shu. In the ninth year 97 CE, Ban Chao sent his Subordinate Gan Ying, who probed as far as the Western Sea, which is either the Persian Gulf or the Black Sea and then returned. Former generations never reached these regions. The Shanjing gives ...


10

You are referring to the Schwarze Reiters (i.e. black riders), named after the dark armour they wore. This was a type of cavalry that appeared in Germany after the decline of the medieval lancers, but later became a generic name (usually shortened to just reiters) for German cavalry mercenaries. Around the mid-16th century, advancements in firearms as well ...



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