Hot answers tagged everyday-life
You are conflating many different things, some of which still happen regularly: Transliteration is still necessary, and it happens a lot, often with differences from one country to the next (cf. Wladimir Putin/Vladimir Putin/Vladimir Poutine) Monarchs' names do get translated, at least occasionally, especially by people who care about such things. Thus, ...
There is a difference between translation and transliteration. The Чайко́вский example obviously had to be transliterated, and there are different transliteration conventions in different languages. Interestingly, the cities München, Nürnberg and Köln usually get translated, while Berlin or Hamburg don't. Does the diaeresis have anything to do with it?
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