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11

It is a widely used epitaph of the time for beloved wives (see here and here), and seems to refer to Luke 10:38-42: (New International Version (NIV)) At the Home of Martha and Mary 38 As Jesus and his disciples were on their way, he came to a village where a woman named Martha opened her home to him. 39 She had a sister called Mary, who sat ...


9

Be it known that I, WILLIAM STEBBINS BARNARD, of Canton, county of Fulton and State of Illinois, have invented a Book-Support, of which the following is a specification [of] this invention [that] relates to a support or holder for books, engravings, photographs, cards, and other things, which it is desired to stand on edge, and retain upright on ...


8

I passed the question to Cathy Raymond. Although she does not earn her living in either history or in textiles (due, I suspect, to her preference for a non-gruel based diet), I've read her research for a couple of years, and I've come to trust her opinion. One of the reasons I place faith in her opinion is that after answering the question, she offered the ...


7

First, Jesus did not live in Judea, but in the more rural and distant province of Galilee. The major population center was Sepphoris, Herod Antipas' seat of power. Historians generally agree that Jesus would have plied his trade in that city: Sepphoris... was moneyed. It was the center of trade for the area. And if Jesus were growing up in Nazareth, ...


6

Pottery (amphora), barrels, and wineskins mostly - which is why archaeologists know so much about pottery, as it is the only one of the three relatively imperishable. Paper was relatively expensive by todays standards until the early 20th century (and glass more so as only hand-blown glass was known) thus would have been used only to store relatively pricey ...


4

Monestary account records and feudal charter dues including land deeds. You might want to start with Bloch on feudalism or the encyclopaedia article on English economics in the Middle Ages. Also that previous answer of mine on urbanity in medieval periods and the lack of a market economy. How did cities operate in medieval times?


4

The wiki article on Mayan Trade has a good overview of Mayan social structure. In essence: The Maya relied on a strong middle class of skilled and semi-skilled workers and artisans which produced both commodities and specialized goods. They also had a large base of slaves and serfs - agricultural specialists. Members of the nobility had specialized ...


3

To answer only part of the question: The wealth of first century carpenters is impossible to compare to highly paid workers in late capitalism. Wealth has a fundamentally different meaning in our society to that of Antiquity; and, as such, a valid comparison is impossible. It is however possible to explain wealth and poverty from the first century in ways ...


3

One possible source is Traditional Korean Costume Given that the authors are listed by their affiliation with Ewha's Women's University, I'm willing to bet that they have additional academic papers availble, and are probably willing to correspond on the topic and suggest other resources. I searched for the first author's name on the Ewha University site ...


3

From the same wiki article: The amphora complements the large storage container, the pithos, which makes available capacities between one-half and two and one-half tons. In contrast, the amphora holds under a half-ton, typically less than 100 pounds. The bodies of the two types have similar shapes. Where the pithos may have multiple small loops or lugs ...


2

If you prefer your Bible straight-up and neat, the that would be Tubal Cain, first artificer in metals (Genesis 4:22); if you prefer it with a grain of salt then take your pick from Imhotep (c. 2250 B.C.), Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80-70 BC) or numerous others. Merriam-Webster Online gives the definition of Engineering as: 1: the activities or ...


1

Before plastic, most of liquids were sold in paper containers or glass bottles (paper packs for liquids appeared in 20th century though). Solid food was sold in paper envelopes or boxes, metal boxes, foil or in natural envelopes (guts, leafs). Sometimes people were required to come with their own volumes to buy a liquid or a semi-liquid, with large ...


1

I found two Judeo-Christian sources that suggest the tradition predates the modern codification of the Old Testament. Last week, we discussed the disagreement quoted in the gemara on 32b regarding the type of zaken (lit., old person) whom one is required to honor. The tanna kamma (first authority [cited]) maintained that honor must be accorded someone ...


1

Modern food packaging came much later than the "industrial era". The food like fruits and vegetables was sold without any packaging. Meat, butter, cheese, sausage etc. was wrapped in paper by the seller at the time you bought it, liquids were sold in glass bottles. This was the usual practice, for example, in Soviet Union until it collapsed. Tin cans and ...



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