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10

Apart from leather hinges that were used even when iron was common (but not so common as to be cheap), there existed the different mounting of the door. I have heard about its use from my grandfather, when I asked for explanation about what is the "heel" of the door in Russian fairy-tales. The whole side of the door frame worked as a huge hinge - this side ...


7

Yes; in Ancient Greece and Rome at least, there were barbers who provided a range of services that were huge compared to their modern equivalent: trimming beards, cutting hair, and yes, trimming nails: The third part of the barber's work was to pare the nails of the hands, an operation which the Greeks expressed by the words ὀνυχίζειν and ἀπονυχίζειν (...


5

A) The earliest documentation I've found regarding the use of sharkskin as sandpaper goes back to the British Empire in the mid 18th century. Sharkskin was apparently only used to finish very fine work: Cabinet makers would use the more accurate honed edges of planes to get a smooth surface, and the finest work was finished by burnishing with a cow's ...


4

Chairs have always been in use. There are chairs in Tutankhamen's tomb. The Romans used high-backed chairs extensively especially by women, which were called a "cathedra." Our word "cathedral" comes from this word, a cathedral being the "seat" of a bishop. Such chairs were also in use among the Greeks. Ancient Roman chair.


3

There is little doubt that until 19s century most people could communicate and socialize only with those in close proximity to them. Travel was slow, expensive and dangerous. But regular mail service was also not available to everyone in most places, most of the time. When we read in the history of mail that such and such emperor "established mail service", ...


2

You are conflating many different things, some of which still happen regularly: Transliteration is still necessary, and it happens a lot, often with differences from one country to the next (cf. Wladimir Putin/Vladimir Putin/Vladimir Poutine) Monarchs' names do get translated, at least occasionally, especially by people who care about such things. Thus, ...


2

There is a difference between translation and transliteration. The Чайко́вский example obviously had to be transliterated, and there are different transliteration conventions in different languages. Interestingly, the cities München, Nürnberg and Köln usually get translated, while Berlin or Hamburg don't. Does the diaeresis have anything to do with it?


2

This is an interesting Reddit I found on the celebration of birthdays. It talks about the origins of all the traditions associated with modern birthdays. From reading Wikipedia and other articles, it seems that only the highest-up nobles celebrated their birthdays. The vast majority of everyone preferred to celebrate name days. Judging from the book War and ...


2

The practice goes back at least to the early centuries of the common era, since the Mishna (Kelim 16:1) mentions "rubbing with fish skin" as the typical way of finishing wooden utensils. Doesn't say anything about whether it was sharkskin or some other type, though.


2

One thing I should clear up up-front: While sometimes classified together, Sharks (and the related Rays) are not really fish. They in fact are less related to fish than we humans are. For instance, they don't have bones like we and fish do. There are numerous other physical differences too, but more importantly for your question, their skin is also very ...


1

You can't expect any stable shape of the distribution throughout the Bronze Age. Just look at the distribution of age in the recent 110 years: They're completely different in 1910, 2005, and 2025 (projected). The Bronze Age lasted for thousands of years and things were at least as unsafe and unstable as during the 20th century. You may get some reasonable ...


1

The Liber Abaci is not about counting. Almost all of it are solutions to various algebra problems. The first chapter describes the Arabic numerals. The second shows how to multiply using Arabic numerals and it gets more complicated from there. So, it is not really a book about "counting". Throughout the middle ages and going back to Roman times the standard ...


1

Most likely they did not know how to count, except for the very basics, such as counting on their fingers and adding up small values. In the middle ages mathematics had a heavy foundation in arithmetic, and therefore the Ph.D. in Mathematics would be roughly equivalent to a third grader's homework today. Since academics and education did not have a emphasis ...


1

Annihilated? British administration was beneficial for the Indian economy. After the British left, the Indian economy declined very significantly. In 1900, India was ranked the #36 country in the world by GDP per capita. Today, it is ranked #135, right below Nigeria. To put that in perspective: if India were #36 today, it would be comparable to Israel (#35)...



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