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There doesn't seem ot have been any technological advance between Ross's expeditions and later (ant)arctic and antarctic expeditions of the late 19th and early 20th century. The clothing was predominantly wool underclothes for warmth, supplemented with canvas over coats for protection from the wind. This worked surprisingly poorly, in the Antarctic ...


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Well, firstly, the initial global-scale contact with China over the oceans was by the Arabs, not the Europeans. That's why many countries in southeast Asia are Muslim and have Arabic ruling dynasties. When the Europeans finally arrived that had to fight the Arabs first to establish bases. Long-range exploration is very expensive and the kind of ships ...



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