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10

It is wrong to say that Italian Jews were not exterminated. They in fact were, but only after Italy was occupied by German forces. Regarding the stance of the Italian government and fascist party, it did not express much of anti-Semitic ideology. At the origins of the fascist party were many Jews, and also Jewish black-shirt brigades of Jabotinsky were ...


8

First of all notice that although many Jews might have perished in Germany, by large the highest fraction was killed in the extermination camps of occupied Poland. Back to Italy now. Even though the Italian Government put emphasis on the purity of the "Italian Race", it was not until 1938 that a specific law against the "Jewish Race" was approved. Italian ...


5

Think of it this way. Contemporary to Mussolini and Hitler, every major European country had a "fascist" movement with a "national socialist" type ideology. Arrow Cross, Nasjonalsamling, Iron Guard, NSB, and so forth. All of them were variously "marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of ...


3

Ideological fascism was probably compatible with the idea of conquest and expansion but without requiring it. Political fascism (the ideology as applied) probably required some attempts at expansion for more populist reasoning. The theorists, particularly the pre-1933 theorists, were more focused on the organization of society and the revitalization of the ...


3

IT didn't exist at the time, so technically the answer is zero, none. If you mean companies that are currently IT companies, and created and sold equipment explicitly for the purpose of use in the holocaust, that'd exclude any company outside German occupied Europe, Spain, Italy, Sweden, and Switzerland, as there simply was no trade during the holocaust ...


3

What I think happened here is a case of gradual exaggeration. Benito Mussolini, who started the Italian Fascist party, was a socialist. But he got kicked out of the socialist party for supporting Italian involvement in WWI. Since he was no longer in the socialist party, he started his own organization, which eventually became the fascist party. Although ...


3

The Spanish Civil War started as a combination of an officers' revolt, plus a coup. The coup "failed," as such (few government leaders were captured by the Nationalists). That may have led to a false sense of security by the government. They probably thought that it was just a rising of a few disaffected officers, and not a full-scale rebellion that would ...


3

From what I can tell, the International Brigades were mostly effective only for propaganda purposes and to camouflage the presence of Soviet assistance to the Republican government. The 32,000-35,000 men in the brigades were a grab bag of unemployed workers, middle class non-combatants, veterans from the first world war, etc; all motivated by a shared ...


2

There is at least a tiny germ of truth here, in that the people who live in the Alpine regions in Europe tend to be German-speaking. Mountains making natural barriers, European countries like to put their borders on them, which naturally gives all such countries a small German-speaking minority. Also, there were large expulsions of Germans from non-German ...


2

Thanks for the question. "Civic responsibility" is bound up with the concept of the separation of society (the mass of persons) from the state (the armed body of men, monopolised by the bourgeoisie). (Gramsci). The separation of individual subjectivities from the state apparatus, as if they should be connected, arises in the French revolution with the ...


1

Is external expansion and aggressive militarism a consistent element of fascist ideology? The answer is clearly yes if consistent means frequent, but seems to be no if consistent is assumed to mean systematic (seems to be because proving a negative is always quite hard). Fascist ideology is positively correlated with expansionism and aggressive ...


1

It was the Romans who came up with the idea of "citizenship." (civus) From there, it was a short step to "civic responsibility." http://www.learningtogive.org/papers/paper11.html



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