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6

First, note that feudalism is a term with no agreed-upon definition. At its strictest, it is limited to Europe, but at its broadest, it can even include Antebellum USA. For my answer, I'm taking a rather broad interpretation, that of a system of government that has the following features: a lord, vassals, and fiefs; the lord has nominal ownership of land but ...


5

Ordinary soldiers did not wear emblems or colors. Units had pennants or flags. Knights might have an emblem, but that would normally be the house of the knight, not anyone else. Here is a picture illustrating a battle from the 100 Years War. As you can see they use flags and pennants:


4

There is a set of social science theories termed Cultural Evolution that covers that phenomenon. The idea is that certain sizes of societies require certain kinds of organization. Thus relatively diffuse hunter-gatherer societies can get away with a good deal of egalitarianism, but as a society (or "tribe") gets larger and more densely populated, more ...


4

In War Karl der Kahle wirklich kahl? Historische Beinamen und was dahinter steckt (Was Charles the Bald really bald? Historical epithets and their background), a book by Reinhard Lebe, the author quotes (p. 115 et seq.) from the writings of Burgundian chroniclers -- de la Marche, Chastellain, and de Commynes. Olivier de la Marche: Charles is ...


4

Perhaps you're talking about Rollo, while swearing feudal allegiance to the King Charles II of France with the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911): "According to legend, when required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as a condition of the treaty, he refused to perform so great a humiliation, and when Charles extended his foot to Rollo, Rollo ordered one ...


3

Englishmen, as well as their Gascon allies wore the red St George's cross stitched over; front and back so as to distinguish each other. Anyone found 'posing' with one who wasn't one of them scored a death sentence. It was an ordinance given by Richard II that every member of the army, lord and archer must wear it over their armour/clothing. Sources: ...


3

The following quotes, from English Medieval Knight 1400-1500 By Christopher Gravett on Google Books, states that retained Men-At-Arms would have worn their lords colours. Great lords employed knights and men-at-arms in private retinues, indeed sometimes so many that they formed private armies. Under this system of ‘livery and maintenance’, the ...


2

Many of the first large-scale, agricultural monasteries were in Ireland and Scotland. The life of Collum Cille, known to English speakers as "St. Columba", is one of the first records of monastic life. It was Irish clerics, not Romans, who developed the monastic system which was based on ascetic hard work and scientific husbandry. It is true that many old ...


2

The Inca chose their ruler from among the sons of the prior Inca. A group of the prior Inca's advisers, generally made up of priests but sometimes military advisers as well, selected the most qualified of the legitimate sons for the post. Because they were unable to accept any cultural norm but primogeniture for deciding inheritance the invading Spanish ...


2

Merchants during the feudal system, tended to be Jews or other "foreigners." Lombards (from the most entrepreneurial part of Italy), and Greeks, tended to perform this function in northern Europe, Dutch (and other western Europeans) in Eastern Europe, etc. Merchants were basically independent of the feudal system, being neither landowners nor peasants. As ...


2

Merchants usually raised from the people of the cities, that is craftsmen. They usually did not originate from the peasants and as such had no allegiance to the feudal lords. They also could originate from the city aristocracy, especially in Italy.



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