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21

Here is one noting: The European medieval diet was largely determined by social class. For the majority of the of the people, peasants, a large portion of their daily diet was made up of grains such as wheat, rye, oats or barley(carbohydrates). The grains were boiled whole in a soup or stew, ground into flour and made into bread, or malted and brewed ...


14

The short answer to your question is that the general avoidance of consuming pork meat is not unique to Islam, and dates back at least roughly to the ancient Egyptians. The oldest confirmed evidence of pigs domesticated and kept for pork meat come from Hallan Cemi in Southeastern Turkey from about 8000 BC. Shortly thereafter, the consumption of pork appears ...


13

These did not have indigenous alcoholic beverages, aiming to be as exhaustive as possible: Inuit (called "Eskimos" in Hornsey "Alcohol and Its Role in the Evolution of Human Society", p. 1) peoples of Tierra del Fuego (South America) (ibid) Australia (ibid) most of the natives of the North America (ibid) including Navajo (Hornsey, p. 554) including Hopi ...


12

Wikipedia has a pretty decent write-up with references. Specifically to tomatoes, it says: Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World with the introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until the 18th century. As far as not-in-quantity, the ...


11

Actually, for a brief span of seven years there was such an army (or, strictly speaking, a corps) - the Palmach, founded in 1941. Its officers wore no special insignia (and in fact, there were no ranks in the usual sense, only command-titles such as "platoon commander"), got the same pay as the privates - and ate together with them. This all makes a lot of ...


10

The Wikipedia page has a bit of history for you. Remember that the freezer was invented first in the beginning of the 20th century, so before that, salt was a highly important (and expensive) commodity. Everything had to be salted in order to be transported inland. Cod is a good fish because it is lean – fat will get rancid. In the Northern Europe however, ...


8

A collection of 26 Babylonian recipe tablets written in Akkadian from 1700BC have been deciphered. Here is an interesting newspaper article on the translations by a chef-turned-antiquarian: Recipe tablets from the Yale Babylonian Collection, previously thought to contain pharmaceutical formulas, have been decoded by French Assyriologist and gourmet chef ...


8

Being portuguese myself, I can answer from memory what we've learned from history lessons and popular knowledge. Living on a maritime-driven country, the Portuguese people always consumed large amounts of fish. Bear in mind most coastal fishing is restrained to smaller-sized specimens - the large specimens were more expensive; and to catch big fish, you ...


8

From what I've gathered from books (e.g. Joseph Baratz' A Village By the Jordan: The Story of Degania and Daniel Gavron's The Kibbutz: Awakening from Utopia) kibbutzim were of critical importance to Israel prior to and in the immediate period after of the state's foundation. They were both collective and agricultural enterprises, they also offered local ...


6

A New York bar's website is one of a few sites which provide the following (seemingly) credible explanation for this practice: No one is exactly sure of the reasons why larger format bottles were given biblical names. But, according to the Champagne expert Francois Bonal, winemakers in Bordeaux had been using the name Jeroboam for the four-bottle size ...


6

The French Légion étrangère has the closest interaction between officers and soldiers that I know of. For example, they all spend Christmas or any other official holidays together. Officers are as well expected to be able to do what the soldiers do and frequently have to. My experience of Legionary officers and homme du rang is that they share more in ...


6

Well alcohol does have a strong anti-bacterial effect,and adding water to wine was a way to create more drink as there was very little clean drinking water. During the fermentation process many microbes die, eventually the yeast too dies in the anaerobic environment. I think adding water to wine and letting the two mix for a while would kill a significant ...


6

According to this well sourced article, wine was diluted to reduce its strength, in order to avoid over-inebriation. Those who did not drink it diluted were seen as barbaric, uncultured, or besotted. There are claims on wikipedia and other online sources that the ancients drank diluted wine or small-beer to avoid water-borne illness, but I can't seem to ...


6

The big difference is geographic diversity. Wheat doesn't do very well in the tropics. Rice requires tropical and semi-tropical areas where lots and lots of water are available. However, corn can be grown nearly anywhere. Corn kind of had a tough row to hoe (pardon the pun) in the Americas. It was first domesticated from the grass Tseosine in tropical areas ...


6

It is quite possible to examine diet through archeological means (composition of bones and teeth). However, I don't know that anybody has done a systematic study of such records with an eye towards looking for vegetarianism. The one piece of similar information I am aware of is that teeth of hunter-gatherers are often discernible at a glance, due to the ...


6

What is known: Buckwheat's yield strongly depends on pollination by insects. Although it is not universally applicable, in eastern North America, honey bee seems to be the main and the most effective pollinator of buckwheat. honey bee was not native to Americas, being first bought there from Europe in early 1600s Sadly, I have no direct historical ...


6

Pottery (amphora), barrels, and wineskins mostly - which is why archaeologists know so much about pottery, as it is the only one of the three relatively imperishable. Paper was relatively expensive by todays standards until the early 20th century (and glass more so as only hand-blown glass was known) thus would have been used only to store relatively pricey ...


5

An archaeological evidence I think could be impossible: if they analyze the content of the digestive system like they did with Ötzi,even if they can find some bodies like this preserved under some special conditions, will be evidence for a few days of diet. If they analyze some lack of nutrients in the bones that lack might be also due to some other factors, ...


5

The Oxford English Dictionary attests the use of cock-tail as a mixed drink from 1809 in W. Irving's Knickerbockers: They lay claim to claim to be the first inventors of those recondite beverages cock-tail, stone-fence, and sherry-cobbler. and from 1839 cocktail as a more general mixed drink in Marryat's Diary American: He frequents the bar, calls ...


4

Corn is the most versatile of crops. Rice needs a nearly tropical climate in which to grow, and also lots of water for paddies. These conditions are present mostly in Southeast Asia. Wheat is a northern crop that does better in dry land. It grows best in Kansas, and areas to the north, and areas to the west of that state. Corn can be grown in ...


4

http://www.oldbeers.com <- contacting the owners of the Pretty Things Brewery might be able to help. They have a project brewing old beer recipes. Basing my answer off a single source (the 1945 beer recipe used by Pretty Things) it appears that there was limited variety in brewing materials as well as a lower alcohol content. It makes sense, as you ...


4

I know that in the British armed forces there has always been a difference in equipment/clothing/food/messes between officers and enlisted men/women. For example, the British Army at it's earliest was constructed of militia etc. commanded by the local nobility/land owners - which was an extension of the feudal system. As things have modernised and developed ...


4

Are there instances where collective farming has actually brought benefit to the population of an area Yes. The shift towards peasant collective farming, generally involving strip rotation of shares, from enslaved farming brought widespread improvements to the standard of living of medieval peasants in England. Collective farming of this nature was ...


3

I agree with @spyder in that I think equality never happened for both historic (officers' roles descended from noble men's) and practical (clear separation helps discipline at least in certain situations) reasons. Perhaps communist countries subscribed to nominal equality in their lower ranks to some degree. However, here is one anecdotal evidence from ...


3

I believe I can answer my question. After some Google search I found this: It is my understanding that it is difficult to fish on a sailing ship. Many fish won't bite a worm or other bait swimming 12-15 knots through the ocean - this isn't a natural mealtime option for them - the bigger fish may (marlins, tuna), but these are very large fish requiring a ...


3

Wikipedia has a list, starting with: The earliest collection of recipes that has survived in Europe is De re coquinaria, written in Latin. An early version was first compiled sometime in the 1st century and has often been attributed to the Roman gourmet Marcus Gavius Apicius, though this has been cast in doubt by modern research. An Apicius came to ...


3

Here's an interesting article on the topic, from the Santa Barbara Independent newspaper. It's titled, "What Did the Early Spanish Settlers Eat?" and should answer your questions: The primary crop was wheat, in addition to significant amounts of corn, beans, barley, and peas. As the mission’s water system developed, more sophisticated irrigation ...


3

This is a really complicated question. I will try to be brief. In order to discuss corn its relevant to discuss other major crops. The reason is that farmers choose to grow things that will compliment another thing to prevent soil erosion and lower costs. In North America, fields are often planted in a two-crop rotation with a nitrogen-fixing crop, often ...


2

It appears the game involved trying to hit a target with wine lees (fermentation residue). So presumably the bowl in the other hand would hold more wine, with which to refill the drinking cup. These days the lees is typically filtered out of the wine before the consumer ever sees it, denying us the excitement (not to mention sanitation issues) of this ...


2

I've heard before that the reason that many Native Americans are alcoholics is because they didn't have alcoholic beverages, and thus they didn't build up a resistance to it. I don't know how true that is. As for people not knowing anything about alcohol, there was this one instance in New Guinea during WWII where a C-47 crashed into an unkown valley, ...



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