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6

Bonaparte had an interesting approach to Islam. It should be kept in mind that at the time he was Bonaparte - not yet Napoléon- he was in Egypt and he had to deal with and try have muslims on his side. Indeed he urged the local authorities to continue their celebrations, including the celebration of Imam Hussein, urged the troops to not intervene and paid a ...


6

Until 1871, Germany wasn't "Germany." It was a collection of (often) warring German-speaking states like Prussia, Bavaria, etc. Austria, which was occupied elsewhere, never did join. The thing that unified the "Germans" was their common distrust of the French, even though some German states liked France more than others. Essentially, uniting to defeat and ...


6

The OED attests several use of the word familiar in Chaucer's works from the 1380's, in the usual sense of "pertaining to personal relations or family." However the earliest use attested to in the OED in the sense of a familiar spirit is from 1584: R SCOTT, Discovering Witchcraft, III. xv. 65 A flie, otherwise called a divell or familiar There is ...


3

I will try to answer your "original" question in a roundabout way by stating that the period after the Napoleonic wars was "healthier" for France in diplomatic terms. This was true even though France lost back essentially all the territory she gained after the French Revolution. From at least the time of Louis XIV (if not XIII) until the time of Napoleon, ...


3

For the most part, France lost all of her Napoleanic territorial gains at the end. By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, concluded after the Hundred Days, France was reduced to her pre-revolution 1790 borders, with the exception of a couple of tiny enclaves surrounded by French territory that they were still allowed to keep. They had been allowed to keep a ...


3

How did other countries take/recognise this title (the largest/most important, like Spain, Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Poland/Lithuania, the Pope, Ottoman Empire maybe)? Was it just taken "it's just a children's play, let the English perform it, if it's fun for them"? All the other monarchs did the same thing. The kings of France and Spain both ...


2

Léon Muel, the source for the full list of the members of the Tribunat in the Wikipedia article, provides a list of the presidents pp. 209-10. Page 209: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1413460/f217.image Page 210: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1413460/f218.image Full book: Muel, Léon. Précis historique des assemblées parlementaires et des ...


1

Monaco was initially an Italian principality. It was founded by Genoa, and later became a colony of Spanish "Aragon," which took over large chunks of Italy. In the 19th century, after the French Revolution, it became a part of Sardinia. It was Monaco's association with "Italy" that tended to keep it out of the hand of France. In fact, most of the original ...



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