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33

British policy on the continent has traditionally been to maintain the balance of power (this is also really a general European thing). This amounted to shifting alliances all over the continent. Though France and Britain are "traditional" enemies (as neighbours were wont to be in Europe), they certainly hadn't been at war for anywhere near "close to 1000 ...


23

The attitude in the early 19 century was somewhat different. No one considered these wars as wars "against France", I mean against the French people. These were the wars against Napoleon, and earlier the wars against the revolutionary government. So there was no notion that "France should be punished". Many French emigres were on the coalition side. It is ...


22

I agree with much of Semaphore's answer, which shows that actually Britain and France were not in a state of perpetual war. But I think your question really relates to "What changed?" so I'll try to answer that. Firstly, the end of the Napoleonic era. The Battle of Waterloo and following months were the end of the Napoleonic wars, and the end of the "Big" ...


13

The legal situation was not as clear as the question assumes, because neither of the reasons cited were valid at the time. While people often apply Salic Law to the dispute in 1328, this is ahistorical - Salic Law had long been defunct by then. Royal succession was not fixed in legislation, but instead shaped by customs that had evolved over the centuries. ...


13

Opposition to the monarchy was indeed a major factor. Many French nobles, a majority of whom adopted Calvinist doctrine, sought to regain and extend privileges lost to the monarchy. - Nexon, Daniel H. The Struggle for Power in Early Modern Europe: Religious Conflict, Dynastic Empires, and International Change. Princeton University Press, 2009. ...


12

I don't have details for 1792, but the following are from James' Naval History for January 1793 (so probably good enough to get an idea of the relative strengths of the fleets). These cover the principal fleets. At Brest Ready or fitting for Sea; 1 120-gun ship of the line 2 110-gun ships of the line 4 80-gun ships of the line 12 74-gun ships of the line ...


12

The reason there are errors you can't reconcile is that this is not painted from life. This is a lady of 1850. After this the hoop skirts only get bigger. This is a gentleman of 1855, who wears trousers and a frock coat. The people you see here are from decades earlier. The gentlemen wear swallowtail coats with breeches and stockings. The women wear the ...


11

This is really more like a whole list of questions... 1. Why was de Grailly granted this title, which was apparently used by only a few families, and not some other title? I think there's a bit of confusion here. The prefix of Captal was the traditional title for the lords of Buch. Edward III granted Jean III de Grailly the fief of Buch which came with it ...


11

What you are looking for is the Battle of the Falaise Pocket, which took place from 12-21 August 1944. Chambois seems to be the spot where the pocket was actually closed, or where the encircling Allied forces met up, which took place on 19 August. According to Wikipedia, the battle is also referred to as the Battle of the Falaise Gap, after the ...


10

Fortunately for Napoleon, not speaking French well was still very common in France in this period. In 1794, only one tenth of the population were fluent in French. The pre-Napoleonic revolutionary government made strides to rectify this by banning all non-Parisian French dialects for official business, but they didn't devote the resources to educate the ...


9

Fortunately, Wikipedians maintain a list of French royal mistresses, so we can knock off a whole slew of Kings at once (link). The list starts with Clovis I and ends with Napoleon III: the A-Z of French royal infidelity. Any king not on that list is a candidate for having been a faithful husband. I'll suggest that Saint Louis IX was among the most likely to ...


9

Short Answer: You're both correct. Which date to pick for ending the French Revolution is a matter of opinion. Your friend is not wrong. The downfall and execution of Maximilien de Robespierre is considered by many to be an end date for the French Revolution. For many historians, the end of Robespierre coincided with the end of the Revolution itself. ...


9

It's not a difference in timelines, official or otherwise. The discrepancy results from whether you count King John the Good (the King of France) as Burgundy's duke when the duchy reverted to the crown between 1361-3. The previous duke, John's stepson Philip I, died without issue in 1361. John created his youngest son, Philip II, as the new duke in 1363. ...


8

France was given a lenient peace because of its importance in the European balance of power, and the fear that punishing France too much would end up giving too much power to some other European country. This was the feeling after the removal of Napoleon, who was seen as the problem, not "France." For instance, England felt that France could be a useful ...


7

In addition to Drux's fine answer, Napoleon's ability to evade the British was down to a number of factors but miscommunication by the British played a very large part. When Sir Sidney Smith was assigned to the Levant Squadron, he was also given a diplomatic mission by the British Cabinet. However, this additional role was not communicated to his superiors ...


7

In german history lessons (as I remember them) the main reasons are listed like this: Great Britain had a policy called "two force standard" for its military fleet, which means GB's fleet should be not only the strongest but as strong as the second and third. Germany increased military ship production in a way that threatened to make this policy ...


7

The association with saints is probably correct. Red and blue were indeed respectively the colours of Saint Denis and Saint Martin. The early history of the French flag is lost in obscurity, and it is not always easy to trace the various modifications that it has undergone. At the earliest date of which we have record we find the kings of the Franks ...


7

When it comes to tank numbers, and even many models - absolutely the French had superiority. However, the problem was primarily doctrinal. Where the Germans concentrated their armour in large motorised formations, designed to strike the enemies centre of gravity, the French dispersed their armour at the battalion level, so it could never really achieve the ...


7

This is a picture of King Louis XVIII of France. The coat he is wearing closely resembles that of the Gendarmes de la Maison militaire du Roi during the First Restoration (red cloth, horizontal lace and black velvet on the chest, etc.) As for why the lace and epaulets appear silver rather than the regulation gold, this is perhaps an affectation of the king, ...


6

The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


6

Bonaparte had an interesting approach to Islam. It should be kept in mind that at the time he was Bonaparte - not yet Napoléon- he was in Egypt and he had to deal with and try have muslims on his side. Indeed he urged the local authorities to continue their celebrations, including the celebration of Imam Hussein, urged the troops to not intervene and paid a ...


6

Most of them were shipped back to France within the week. The Battle of France was not quite over and the Dunkirk evacuees were still French military. Most French evacuees from Dunkirk had elected to be returned to the fight; the British troops had gone home to be re-equipped. - Williams, Andrew. France, Britain and the United States in the ...


6

The short answer to your question is that for much of his early life Napoleon was a Corsican patriot but only a French opportunist. He inherited from his father a fierce love of both Corsica and Pasquale Paoli, and did not consider himself French nor was he particularly loyal to France outside of the fact that it gave him an opportunity to move up in life. ...


6

Until 1871, Germany wasn't "Germany." It was a collection of (often) warring German-speaking states like Prussia, Bavaria, etc. Austria, which was occupied elsewhere, never did join. The thing that unified the "Germans" was their common distrust of the French, even though some German states liked France more than others. Essentially, uniting to defeat and ...


6

The OED attests several use of the word familiar in Chaucer's works from the 1380's, in the usual sense of "pertaining to personal relations or family." However the earliest use attested to in the OED in the sense of a familiar spirit is from 1584: R SCOTT, Discovering Witchcraft, III. xv. 65 A flie, otherwise called a divell or familiar There is ...


5

Could your place be Equemauville? Its on the coast, but not near Rennes. https://www.google.com/maps/place/%C3%89quemauville,+France/@49.403432,0.2092025,13z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x47e032e5d20e4639:0x434c62c2074eeb9


5

Anne was by birth an Archduchess of Austria. Around her time, the title of Archduke/Archduchess became assumed by all ruling Habsburg dynasts and their children. There's several other examples such as Joanna of Austria, or Anne's sister Maria Anna of Austria. She was also a princess of the House of Austria. Anne descends from that dynasty on both parents' ...


5

At the time both England and France recognized the authority of the Church. Were there any attempt at having the Pope invited to adjudicate the succession amiably? At first the pope tried to arbitrate the dispute, but it didn't go anywhere. A few years after the war began, the English King Edward III allied himself with Emperor Louis IV, who named Edward ...


5

I have found it now here: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/24_Lombart.pdf (footnote 40), where someone (not Chirac himself) says that Chirac is “de ceux pour qui ‘sans l’Afrique, la France deviendrait une puissance de troisième rang’” (one of those for whom “without Africa France would become a third-rate power”). NB. "third rate" not "third world".


4

I think it is important to understand the environment in the rest of Europe at that time. Spain had a civil war 1936-1939 (some considering that it was a test for WW2) Italy was under control of fascism. But lets talk about more "important" countries, in England, the primer minister at the time was more inclined to negotiate rather than to attack, the ...



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