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50

I'm going to say that England should not be considered as having been a colony of France. From the wiki page for colony a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign When William took power he did so on behalf of himself and not on behalf of France, and he ruled as King of ...


48

First because most cities in France are much smaller than cities in the US. Compare a list of French cities by population with the same for the US. There are 11 cities in the US bigger than the 2nd largest in France (Marseille at ~855,000) and 34 bigger than the 3rd largest (Lyon at ~500,000). Second, it does have big Atlantic coastal cities... by French ...


47

Defense of German heritage against Romans The biggest reason for how the lands east of the Rhine retained their German identity (unlike the Gauls of modern day France who lost their Celtic identity) is the Battle of Teutoburg Forest where the Germans won a decisive victory against Roman invaders. After this battle, the Romans never seriously attempted to ...


23

Bordeaux and Nantes are major cities and their proximity to the Atlantic coast was key to their development so there is nothing unusual about France in this respect, it does have some major port cities on the Atlantic coast. The question, then, is really one of local geography. Those cities are located a few tens of kilometres away from the actual coastline,...


21

Atlantic pockets The answer is surprisingly difficult to find on Wikipedia. I persisted in searching and finally found this: German military administration in occupied France during World War II The Liberation of France was the result of the Allied operations Overlord and Dragoon in the summer of 1944. Most of France was liberated by ...


20

It shouldn't. Before conquering England, William the Bastard was Duke of Normandy, a political entity that had been separate from West Francia (by 1066, the Kingdom of France) since 911 C.E. The Normans spoke a dialect of French, and William and his ancestors were technically vassals of the kings of France, but it was still more or less a separate entity. ...


16

Yes. Absolutism is rarely, if ever, as absolute as the name suggests. Even after the ascension of Louis XIV, the Estates of France continued to meet in assemblies. The most famous and powerful was of course the Estates General, a national body which admittedly only met once in this period. And it ended up ushering in the French Revolution. However, on ...


13

It was somewhat more complicated. According to Wikipedia France conquered Madagaskar in 1895 and sent the royal family into exile on Réunion Island and to Algeria. (Wikipedia, "Madagaskar", chapter French Colonization). After this an uprising started against the French rule. So this prince was apparently executed as a rebel. Some more detail and ...


10

There are many examples of antisemitic caricatures in the far-right French press between the two world wars, especially in the thirties. It is not so easy to find them on the net (I don't know where to look), but a good library with a collection of the journal "Je suis partout", one of the most famous of those journals, should give you plenty of examples.


10

The Franks were a German tribe, speaking a Germanic language. They conquered part of the Roman Empire roughly corresponding to modern-day France. However, the common folk in that area spoke Latin, and never stopped just because their ruling class was now German. Over time their Latin language drifted until it became the language we now call "French". ...


9

As far as we can tell, Medieval French families were significantly bigger than modern western families - averaging perhaps around five to six. In contrast, modern France has an average household size of 2.38. However, they remained relatively small scale, and somewhat nuclear families of mostly two generations. Note the standard disclaimers apply: pre-modern ...


8

Bonaparte had an interesting approach to Islam. It should be kept in mind that at the time he was Bonaparte - not yet Napoléon- he was in Egypt and he had to deal with and try have Muslims on his side. Indeed he urged the local authorities to continue their celebrations, including the celebration of Imam Hussein, urged the troops to not intervene and paid a ...


8

One of the main differences between Morocco and other Maghreb countries controlled by France was the extensive settlements established there. European settlers began arriving immediately after the capture of Algeria in 1830. These settlers were encouraged by the colonial policy which makes it easy for them to massively "buy" Algerian lands at the expense ...


8

This is more a comment than an answer, but I need the space: Significance of the "300.000 soldiers" data. Note that such a number does not mean that most of the population loved the colonization. People could have been enlisted by force, or just as a mean of living and escaping poverty. Even if they had enlisted voluntarely for their love of France, it ...


8

The attribution may well be apocryphal. In the Wikipedia entry on Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, the phrase is attributed to Richelieu himself, either in Mémoires or in Testament politique. However, I have been unable to find it in either of these texts (admittedly, just did a quick search). In the Bulletin du bibliophile, Volume 6 (1843), page 12, ...


8

Until 1871, Germany wasn't "Germany." It was a collection of (often) warring German-speaking states like Prussia, Bavaria, etc. Austria, which was occupied elsewhere, never did join. The thing that unified the "Germans" was their common distrust of the French, even though some German states liked France more than others. Essentially, uniting to defeat and ...


8

It was never really ruled by French royalty in the usual sense of the word. The Duke of Normandy was a vassal of the French king but such a relationship was often a two-way street. The vassal had obligations to the feudal lord but the lord also had obligations to the vassals. This was especially true of the kings of England who commanded enough influence and ...


7

This is a picture of King Louis XVIII of France. The coat he is wearing closely resembles that of the Gendarmes de la Maison militaire du Roi during the First Restoration (red cloth, horizontal lace and black velvet on the chest, etc.) As for why the lace and epaulets appear silver rather than the regulation gold, this is perhaps an affectation of the king, ...


7

Apparently a couple of the chronicles from the time are available online. From the contemporary French Chronicle of Jean Froissart: ... for an accident befell [Edward III] and all his army, who were then before Chartres, that much humbled him, and bent his courage. During the time that the French commissioners were passing backwards and forwards ...


6

because of what a horrible person it makes you look like when you come out and actually say it Well, you managed to do it with less than 2 lines (although perhaps not for the most honest of men). Regardless of the authenticity of the quote, I can see two interpretations: I am so skilled in twisting words that I can make even the most innocent phrase ...


6

The OED attests several use of the word familiar in Chaucer's works from the 1380's, in the usual sense of "pertaining to personal relations or family." However the earliest use attested to in the OED in the sense of a familiar spirit is from 1584: R SCOTT, Discovering Witchcraft, III. xv. 65 A flie, otherwise called a divell or familiar There is ...


6

The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


6

Most likely because there isn't any. Apparently, Hatutu was never settled in the first place. As @Fred pointed out, there appears to be no good reason to evacuate Hatutu, and my google search attempts failed to turn up any reference to any population at Hatutu except this exact thread. In fact, Hatutu was already uninhabited at least by the time of ...


6

Considering your edit (liberation of the north-eastern border): I would say March 19th 1945 after Lauterbourg was taken back in Alsace. You may also consider the city of Saorge, at the Italian border, liberated in April 24th. But I don't think it makes so much sense to try to find a definitive day of the French liberation, because of the "pockets" which ...


5

How did other countries take/recognise this title (the largest/most important, like Spain, Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Poland/Lithuania, the Pope, Ottoman Empire maybe)? Was it just taken "it's just a children's play, let the English perform it, if it's fun for them"? All the other monarchs did the same thing. The kings of France and Spain both ...


5

Well played sir, well played! Drake has persuaded me to offer a bad answer. This is a bad answer because I'm going to cite a set of generalizations without either the sources that I prefer or the extensive scholarship of the god king of H:SE. If you want a one sentence answer, growing communications, a broader distribution of economic power to ...


4

I will try to answer your "original" question in a roundabout way by stating that the period after the Napoleonic wars was "healthier" for France in diplomatic terms. This was true even though France lost back essentially all the territory she gained after the French Revolution. From at least the time of Louis XIV (if not XIII) until the time of Napoleon, ...


4

At that time, the Duke of Normandy was more or less independent from France, his fealty to the king amounting to more of a mutually beneficial relationship than that of a strict subject. If anything, England could have been viewed as a colony of Normandy, but colony implies ownership by a state. In this case, it was instead that both Normandy and England ...


4

NO. England was conquered by a "Frenchman," William the Conqueror, not France. Unlike e.g. Christopher Columbus, who colonized the "Indians" and handed over his new colony to Queen Isabella of Spain, William did not conquer England for France. He was a "warlord" who conquered England for himself, and crowned himself king.


4

The Kings of France were never Kings of England. However, the Kings of England did, on different occasions, do homage to the King of France but only for those lands they held in France - Normandy in the time of William and later Aquitaine after it become a possession of the English crown after the marriage of Henry II to Eleanor of Aquitaine. On the other ...



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