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18

Many French may have borne arms for the Axis, but it was very soft support; not many of them ever fired a shot in anger for the Axis. Even in October/November 1942 with the Axis at flood tide, Vichy North Africa rapidly switched allegiance after the Torch Landings at Casablanca, Oran and Algiers, despite some initial confused opposition. Following the ...


11

This is really more like a whole list of questions... 1. Why was de Grailly granted this title, which was apparently used by only a few families, and not some other title? I think there's a bit of confusion here. The prefix of Captal was the traditional title for the lords of Buch. Edward III granted Jean III de Grailly the fief of Buch which came with it ...


10

I can find a literary reference; I have no idea whether the depiction of the anecdote is accurate. The reference is in the notes to La Gastronomie by Joseph de Berchoux, which was somehow famous in France in the 19th century and coined the word gastronomie. The poem was first published in 1801 (the edition I link to is from 1819). The notes look like they ...


10

I'm not into proscribing a lot of collective guilt onto modern peoples for acts of their cultural ancestors. In fact, its damn silly. However, if someone else is trying to do this publicly, they should be really careful, because when it comes to slavery almost no culture on earth has clean hands. This includes Muslim society, and local Negro1 cultures. ...


10

Pieter Geerkens answer is excellent and should be selected, but I want to add a few well-known facts which show that the "brutal statistic" is actually wrong by an order of magnitude. Western Front 1940 More than 2,200,000 French soldiers fought on the Western Front in 1940. This alone dwarfs the total number of any kind of military personnel under ...


9

The answer lies, I believe, in the obscure end of the Merovingian epoch and is quite hard to understand from a modern perspective seeing that the geopolitical entitles involved disappeared completely under the Carolingians (at the risk of being off-topic, I still remember fondly reading these stories as a child and not understanding a word, so foreign seemed ...


9

If one interprets this question as Why were the Merovingians so reviled at the peak of their power?, then the answer is easy: they weren't. At the peak of their power, the frankish kingdoms were the most powerful geopolitical entities in Western Europe, were recognized as such and their kings were treated accordingly. The early Carolingians reviled the ...


9

The legal situation was not as clear as the question assumes, because neither of the reasons cited were valid at the time. While people often apply Salic Law to the dispute in 1328, this is ahistorical - Salic Law had long been defunct by then. Royal succession was not fixed in legislation, but instead shaped by customs that had evolved over the centuries. ...


8

According to this source by the Treaty of Bärwald: Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Bärwald of the 23rd of January 1631. Wikipedia states: The treaty obliged Sweden to maintain an army of 36,000 troops, and France to fund the Swedish ...


8

It wasn't a kingdom. The idea is that there existed a Jewish principality in the Frankish realm, vassal to the Carolingian kings. Their leader wasn't a king but rather a Nāśī. It is mostly advocated by a certain Arthur Zuckerman, as you have noted. His theory has been widely dismissed by historians in general. Zuckerman's claim is that the Jews of ...


8

Short Answer: You're both correct. Which date to pick for ending the French Revolution is a matter of opinion. Your friend is not wrong. The downfall and execution of Maximilien de Robespierre is considered by many to be an end date for the French Revolution. For many historians, the end of Robespierre coincided with the end of the Revolution itself. ...


8

Fortunately, Wikipedians maintain a list of French royal mistresses, so we can knock off a whole slew of Kings at once (link). The list starts with Clovis I and ends with Napoleon III: the A-Z of French royal infidelity. Any king not on that list is a candidate for having been a faithful husband. I'll suggest that Saint Louis IX was among the most likely to ...


7

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first use of the word "van" in print to refer to "A covered vehicle chiefly employed for the conveyance of goods" was in 1829. These were not motor vehicles as we think of vans today, just horse-drawn wagons. See the Wikipedia page for Pantechnicon van for information and a photo of a particular type of English ...


7

They were assigned to the Musketeer's unit. Unit names rarely designate the actual weapons - for example, there was a regiment of Fusiliers in the UK army in 1962, but they didn't use flintlocks (Fusilier is a word that means "flintlock shooter"), nor do the Grenadiers fight exclusively with grenades. And the Horse Guards... Or to choose another example, ...


6

A passage from Medieval Jewish Civilization: An Encyclopedia discusses the history and importance of Narbonne as a center for Jewish thought in the western Mediterranean. You can explore this book in more detail on Google Books. In this book, the following passage discusses Charlemagne’s association with what were known as “The Jewish Kings of Narbonne”: ...


5

As for the symbolism of the white color, Wikipedia has a couple of explanations : White had long featured prominently on French flags and is described as the "ancient French colour" by Lafayette. White was added to the "revolutionary" colors of the militia cockade to "nationalise" the design, thus creating the tricolour cockade. And also The ...


5

Could your place be Equemauville? Its on the coast, but not near Rennes. https://www.google.com/maps/place/%C3%89quemauville,+France/@49.403432,0.2092025,13z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x47e032e5d20e4639:0x434c62c2074eeb9


5

Anne was by birth an Archduchess of Austria. Around her time, the title of Archduke/Archduchess became assumed by all ruling Habsburg dynasts and their children. There's several other examples such as Joanna of Austria, or Anne's sister Maria Anna of Austria. She was also a princess of the House of Austria. Anne descends from that dynasty on both parents' ...


4

Thomas Nashe's 1592 work Pierce Penilesse, His Supplication to the Divell implies a use of wigs to hide the indications of venereal disease: "Men and women that have gone under the South pole, must lay off their furde night-caps in spight of their teeth, and become yeomen of the vineger bottle: a close periwig hides al the sinnes of an olde ...


4

As surprising as this may seem, there is some truth in these allegations, but of course this does not change in any way their antisemitic character. Why there is some truth The French Triangular Trade was conducted primarily from the harbor of Nantes, from where departed almost as many slave-carrying ships as from all the other French harbors combined. ...


4

They are termed camp followers and have followed armies since before Ramses II at Kadesh. Modern armies travel with long tails of official logistical services - cooks, tailors, smiths, armourers, teamsters, nurses, physicians & surgeons, etc. - that in earlier times were provided by civilian camp followers, but wives, children, mistresses and others ...


4

France wasn't prepared. The French strategy in the late 30s (including the military industry which had been greatly weakened in the 30s) did'nt include attacking Germany before 1941. They could have invaded Germany (the Ruhr would have been sufficient) in 1936 (before the Anschluss and the annexion of the Czech arm industry). But it was clearly not ...


4

There isn't, and never has been, a French equivalent of the Victorian Era in the sense of moral rigidity and the dominance of the bourgeoisie. As evidence I submit the concept of the French Postcard (warning - adult content beyond link) which nearly every Victorian gentleman traveling on the Continent would send to his male friends for their amusement. The ...


4

I believe that the author is referring to William Pitt the Younger, who was at various times Chancellor of the Exchequer and Prime Minister during the end of the reign of George III and then during the Napoleonic Wars. He was a strong advocate of free trade policies as advocated by Adam Smith. There is a story where Pitt and other dignitaries refused to sit ...


4

I understand that Blue and Red were taken for the national flag since these colors, being a symbol of Paris, had been used by the citizens during the storm of the Bastille In fact, this is likely to be a misunderstanding. As explained in the research of Michel Pastoureau, blue and red where not strongly associated with the colors of Paris at the onset ...


4

The issue with any treaty provision is what will you do if the side does violate it. Ideally, you would instantly spring to war. However, will your allies and your own people support this? Hitler was able to spin the 100000 man army and the limits on equipment into a straitjacket that wouldn't even let them defend themselves against their smallest ...


4

I think it is important to understand the environment in the rest of Europe at that time. Spain had a civil war 1936-1939 (some considering that it was a test for WW2) Italy was under control of fascism. But lets talk about more "important" countries, in England, the primer minister at the time was more inclined to negotiate rather than to attack, the ...


4

The Reign of Terror resulted in an estimated 40,000 executions, primarily landed nobility, courtiers and clergy. Many upper class French emigrated to other countries. A typical example is that of Pierre du Pont, founder of the chemical company E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Being a member of the lesser nobility, the revolution never got around to ...


3

An alliance with the Sardinia-Piedmont was a good way to weaken the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and to win an potentially strong ally on the Alpine south-east border of France, betting on the unification of the Italian peninsula by the kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont. A weak Sardinia-Piedmont Kingdom meant that France could be threatened by an invasion from the ...


3

The May 1968 protests was in no way a revolution. It started as a student protest against various issues at the University of Sorbonne, and escalated when first the university leadership and after the conflict grew, the government, tried to solve the issue by calling in police. After this many other unions in France went on strike in sympathy. So it was not ...



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