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3

How did other countries take/recognise this title (the largest/most important, like Spain, Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Poland/Lithuania, the Pope, Ottoman Empire maybe)? Was it just taken "it's just a children's play, let the English perform it, if it's fun for them"? All the other monarchs did the same thing. The kings of France and Spain both ...


3

I will try to answer your "original" question in a roundabout way by stating that the period after the Napoleonic wars was "healthier" for France in diplomatic terms. This was true even though France lost back essentially all the territory she gained after the French Revolution. From at least the time of Louis XIV (if not XIII) until the time of Napoleon, ...


3

For the most part, France lost all of her Napoleanic territorial gains at the end. By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, concluded after the Hundred Days, France was reduced to her pre-revolution 1790 borders, with the exception of a couple of tiny enclaves surrounded by French territory that they were still allowed to keep. They had been allowed to keep a ...


-2

I think you already answered your own question. It was more fortuitous than anything else: that's where everybody was when the time came. Remember that Germany had already been long united in the Holy Roman Empire, which the French has destroyed in 1806. In the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, the Prussians reversed that dominance, and created the grounds for ...


5

Until 1871, Germany wasn't "Germany." It was a collection of (often) warring German-speaking states like Prussia, Bavaria, etc. Austria, which was occupied elsewhere, never did join. The thing that unified the "Germans" was their common distrust of the French, even though some German states liked France more than others. Essentially, uniting to defeat and ...


3

This is a picture of King Louis XVIII of France. The coat he is wearing closely resembles that of the Gendarmes de la Maison militaire du Roi during the First Restoration (red cloth, horizontal lace and black velvet on the chest, etc.) As for why the lace and epaulets appear silver rather than the regulation gold, this is perhaps an affectation of the king, ...


2

I think the Louis XVIII hypothesis is good, given the facial and corpulence similarity, but also its spouse similarity: Below, the Queen Marie Josephine de Savoie(the facial resemblance of his spouse):


11

The reason there are errors you can't reconcile is that this is not painted from life. This is a lady of 1850. After this the hoop skirts only get bigger. This is a gentleman of 1855, who wears trousers and a frock coat. The people you see here are from decades earlier. The gentlemen wear swallowtail coats with breeches and stockings. The women wear the ...


1

The two officers behind the man in red look like they are wearing French Gendarmerie uniforms. Also, are those mountains in the back? I'm not sure the guy is English, despite his red jacket. The soldier in the far back wears a heat with a red hackle. The French Garde Republicaine wears similar hats with red hackles. ...


1

I think it is almost certainly one of the restored Bourbon monarchs, either Louis XVIII, Charles X, or Louis Phillippe. If the timing is correct then it would probably have to be Louis Philippe. By dress and appearance it looks much more like Louis XVIII of France.  


3

A more likely possibility than General Colbert is King William IV with his (much younger) wife Adelaide. They married in July 1818. Even after his ascension in 1830 William was known to walk around London and Brighton unaccompanied by guards , as here. However the issue of the sash being worn on the wrong shoulder occurs again, and whether he was in the ...


0

The only French unit I am aware of that wore red uniforms was the Red Lancers, Second Regiment of Light Horse Lancers of the Imperial Guard. The uniform might be that of a Red Lancers officer, but the painting doesn't give enough detail to be sure of much besides the colour. The red sash and impression of a distinction on the left breast might be that of ...


12

I don't have details for 1792, but the following are from James' Naval History for January 1793 (so probably good enough to get an idea of the relative strengths of the fleets). These cover the principal fleets. At Brest Ready or fitting for Sea; 1 120-gun ship of the line 2 110-gun ships of the line 4 80-gun ships of the line 12 74-gun ships of the line ...


8

France was given a lenient peace because of its importance in the European balance of power, and the fear that punishing France too much would end up giving too much power to some other European country. This was the feeling after the removal of Napoleon, who was seen as the problem, not "France." For instance, England felt that France could be a useful ...


22

The attitude in the early 19 century was somewhat different. No one considered these wars as wars "against France", I mean against the French people. These were the wars against Napoleon, and earlier the wars against the revolutionary government. So there was no notion that "France should be punished". Many French emigres were on the coalition side. It is ...



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