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Mao Zedong never learned to speak standard Chinese (Putonghua, alias Mandarin); he could only speak Hunan dialect, which Chinese people in other provinces find incomprehensible. This did not prevent him from becoming China's absolute leader.


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Fortunately for Napoleon, not speaking French well was still very common in France in this period. In 1794, only one tenth of the population were fluent in French. The pre-Napoleonic revolutionary government made strides to rectify this by banning all non-Parisian French dialects for official business, but they didn't devote the resources to educate the ...


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This question can be subdivided into two more: 1) Why Protestantism (Calvinism and Lutheranism) vs. Catholicism and 2) Why Calvinism vs. Lutheranism. 1) For Protestantism over Catholicism. Protestant theology held that Christians were connected to God through the scriptures, rather than through the Church. This came at a time when the (Catholic) church ...


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As Pieter Geerkens pointed out, a balanced budget and the national debt are NOT the same thing. A balanced budget means that the national debt is not getting WORSE, not that it is being eliminated. Put another way, a balanced budget means that receipts and expenditures are in "balance." There were several reasons why the French budget was relatively easy to ...


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Opposition to the monarchy was indeed a major factor. Many French nobles, a majority of whom adopted Calvinist doctrine, sought to regain and extend privileges lost to the monarchy. - Nexon, Daniel H. The Struggle for Power in Early Modern Europe: Religious Conflict, Dynastic Empires, and International Change. Princeton University Press, 2009. ...


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Religious sects (heresies) tend to be very heavily correlated to societies and their desires for who they want to associate with, and distance themselves from. For instance, German tribes in the late Roman period tended to take up Arianism, which quite conveniently provided them independence from Roman popes and a common sect amongst themselves. A similar ...



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