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As far as we can tell, Medieval French families were significantly bigger than modern western families - averaging perhaps around six. In contrast, modern France has an average household size of 2.38. Note the standard disclaimers apply: pre-modern demographic statistics are extremely patchy, and often must be interpreted with laborious reconstructions. ...


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Topographic bureaus often used to work late at night. There are two reasons for this. One is that they needed to make nighttime observations of the weather and stars. The other is that military attacks and movements often occur at dawn. The bureau is needed to make plans for any movements so it is made to operate at a convenient time for that purpose.


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A modern IT department typically requires its junior members to perform more on-call off-hour shifts than senior members, because the senior members need the face time with other departments that work regular shifts. Although the work performed by the Topographical office may not have been time critical, the time of arriving couriers most certainly would ...


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The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


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Bonaparte had an interesting approach to Islam. It should be kept in mind that at the time he was Bonaparte - not yet Napoléon- he was in Egypt and he had to deal with and try have muslims on his side. Indeed he urged the local authorities to continue their celebrations, including the celebration of Imam Hussein, urged the troops to not intervene and paid a ...


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Léon Muel, the source for the full list of the members of the Tribunat in the Wikipedia article, provides a list of the presidents pp. 209-10. Page 209: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1413460/f217.image Page 210: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1413460/f218.image Full book: Muel, Léon. Précis historique des assemblées parlementaires et des ...


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The OED attests several use of the word familiar in Chaucer's works from the 1380's, in the usual sense of "pertaining to personal relations or family." However the earliest use attested to in the OED in the sense of a familiar spirit is from 1584: R SCOTT, Discovering Witchcraft, III. xv. 65 A flie, otherwise called a divell or familiar There is ...


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Monaco was initially an Italian principality. It was founded by Genoa, and later became a colony of Spanish "Aragon," which took over large chunks of Italy. In the 19th century, after the French Revolution, it became a part of Sardinia. It was Monaco's association with "Italy" that tended to keep it out of the hand of France. In fact, most of the original ...



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