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18

They got their weapons from the Hôtel national des Invalides, which were stormed by a Parisian mob earlier the same day. Much of the armaments previously stored there had been removed just two days earlier, but the revolutionaries still managed to acquire ~28,000-32,000 (sources vary) muskets hidden in the cellars and the church. They also found several ...


17

That is Avignon, part of the papal states. In 1791 the French annexed it. The map below shows the extent of the papal states in 1700:


11

As far as I know, the main issues in French foreign policy of the period were: Friendship with USA, with which France shared common ideological ground. In particular, the United States Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution and United States Bill of Rights much influenced the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and ...


11

One might argue that secularism brought about the French Revolution; not all correlation is causation. Mike Duncan's Revolutions podcast covers the role of the church in the revolution fairly well. (at least at a high/brief level). There are a couple of factors worth mentioning. The French Revolution wasn't designed; it was a runaway cart, heading down a ...


10

The reason for the meeting was finance. I don't have that research to hand, but France was absolutely screwed for finance. They had a structural deficit and had tried everything (including inventing entirely new and fantastic monetary systems, firing successive finance ministers, etc. There wasn't a mechanism to levy new taxes or to change the allocation of ...


10

Robespierre was of the opinion that the best way to ensure the success of the revolution was to execute all the enemies of the revolution. A tyrannical position that he, as so many others, justified with nonsensical slogans. The government in a revolution is the despotism of liberty against tyranny. -- Robespierre, 1794 Such policy will soon end up ...


10

Short Answer: You're both correct. Which date to pick for ending the French Revolution is a matter of opinion. Your friend is not wrong. The downfall and execution of Maximilien de Robespierre is considered by many to be an end date for the French Revolution. For many historians, the end of Robespierre coincided with the end of the Revolution itself. ...


8

In keeping with your question, I'll leave out instances of human body part use for purely utilitarian reasons (organ donation) and focus on things done for symbolic reasons (dehumanizing, revenge, magic, etc), especially with reference to victims of political persecution or on the losing end. Do correct me if I've interpreted your questions wrongly :) ...


8

Novels are not typically accorded a high status as a primary source by historians because they have a purpose other than the truthful representation of the past as it was, as recreated from the documentary records of the past. Novels are incapable of "accuracy" in this sense. Similarly: plays and movies are incapable of historical accuracy. Novels may ...


8

The Reign of Terror resulted in an estimated 40,000 executions, primarily landed nobility, courtiers and clergy. Many upper class French emigrated to other countries. A typical example is that of Pierre du Pont, founder of the chemical company E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Being a member of the lesser nobility, the revolution never got around to ...


8

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about being an Archduchess of Austria. Indeed, I'm not sure how one could ask for a more legitimate bride than a princess of Europe's most prestigious royal house. In ...


7

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first use of the word "van" in print to refer to "A covered vehicle chiefly employed for the conveyance of goods" was in 1829. These were not motor vehicles as we think of vans today, just horse-drawn wagons. See the Wikipedia page for Pantechnicon van for information and a photo of a particular type of English ...


7

The League of the Sublime and Perfect Masters (Sublime Perfect Masters / Society of Perfect Sublime Masters) was a conspiratorial and revolutionary society, one of the Carbonari groups. It was created in 1818 by Filippo Buonarroti and it operated as a Masonic Lodge. Its headquarters were in Turin and its immediate goal was independence from Austria. Its ...


7

There was a set of reforms introduced by Napoleon into conquered countries The law based on Napoleonic code. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified. The code declared presumption of innocence, competitive trial and right to an attorney. The code prohibited ...


7

The French navy suffered considerably due to the French revolution. Having finished the American War of Independence on something approaching a high (comparatively speaking), the French navy suffered a reverse that it never fully recovered from until well after the finish of the Napoleonic Wars. Like most other European navies of the time, the officers ...


7

It seems that a loyalist by the name of Pierre-Louis Olivier Desclozeaux, who lived next to the plot of land where Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were buried, wrote down exactly where the two graves were and then bought the plot of land when it came up for sale years later. He then offered the land and his note of where the two were buried to King Louis ...


6

I found another hint in Histoire du dimanche: de 1700 à nos jours by Robert Beck page 154 on bottom. See the following google books link. Le surplus en travail que provoque le rythme décadaire, pourrait également constituer une raison du rejet dont le nouveau temps est la victime. [...] Les instigateur des lois sur l'observation des décadis de l'an ...


6

As far as I remember, mostly it was to survive against the onslaught of the rest of Europe. Most of the initial stage of the revolution was seen as an internal matter to France but some of the propaganda of the revolution was spread abroad. All the crowned heads of Europe were (rightly) worried about the events in France. So, spreading the revolution was ...


6

The French Republican Calendar started counting years from 22 September 1792, the day the French First Republic was proclaimed. Year I was the first year of the Republic, and so on. You can read more about the calendar's design on Wikipedia.


6

The points that Samuel raised are all valid, books don't really attempt to present a fair and balanced depiction of events, however I still think it's a good question, and to answer your question directly: Yes, for the most part it is pretty accurate, as long as you recognize the perspective that it's coming from. As the title suggests, the book is focused ...


6

Wikipedia lists the total casualties from the Terror at a much more reasonable tens of thousands: The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris),2 and another 25,000 in summary executions across France. The Terror only lasted 9 months after all. Update: While it is certain that a few ...


6

The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


5

The striking thing was that France and Austria had been political rivals going back to the time of Francis I (France) and Charles V (Austria). Until the mid 18th century. After winning the 100 Years' War, France became the strongest power in western Europe. Spain and Austria (counting the Holy Roman Empire) were two and three, and when Princess Juana of ...


5

As for the symbolism of the white color, Wikipedia has a couple of explanations : White had long featured prominently on French flags and is described as the "ancient French colour" by Lafayette. White was added to the "revolutionary" colors of the militia cockade to "nationalise" the design, thus creating the tricolour cockade. And also The ...


5

I found contradictory information on this. A biography of Lavoisier which only suggests that Fourcroy failed to step up in his defense when he most needed it. See: Jean Pierre Poirier Lavoisier: Chemist, Biologist, Economist On Google Books On p367 in the chapter "The Arrest" These interventions [on Lavoisier's behalf to counter the charges against ...


5

Well played sir, well played! Drake has persuaded me to offer a bad answer. This is a bad answer because I'm going to cite a set of generalizations without either the sources that I prefer or the extensive scholarship of the god king of H:SE. If you want a one sentence answer, growing communications, a broader distribution of economic power to ...


5

Like most internet “quotes”, this is actually fake. But Diderot said something quite similar in his poem: “Les Éleuthéromanes” : J'en atteste les temps; j'en appelle à tout âge; Jamais au public avantage L'homme n'a franchement sacrifié ses droits; S'il osait de son cœur n'écouter que la voix, Changeant tout à coup de langage, ...


4

One noble present at the Tennis Court Oath was the Marquis de Lafayette. He had been schooled in the American Revolution, and was about to embark on the French Revolution.



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