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Arguably all societies are formed around institutions. Fukuyama claims, and it seems reasonable, that religious institutions were the most effective institutions between the "tribal" organization and modern secular societies. @Alex is right that it is difficult to judge how much a given institution relies on mystical or preternatural support. American is ...


This question makes no sense until a "religion" is unambiguously defined. And this is difficult. Some definitions are so broad that according to these definitions, there is no irreligious society at all. For example a remarkable book by Vercor, Humans or animals? (one of the places where I have seen a general definition of religion) includes "burial of the ...


This is Comtat Venaissin. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comtat_Venaissin for further information. If you understand French, you'll find https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comtat_Venaissin more complete.


To be technical Avignon was not then part of France. It was part of the Kingdom of Burgundy or Arles in the Holy Roman Empire, or would be except that the Pope claimed to be an independent monarch. The kingdom of Arles included about one sixth of modern france. By 1789 the King of France and the Swiss Confederation had acquired most of the counties and ...


That is Avignon, part of the papal states. In 1791 the French annexed it. The map below shows the extent of the papal states in 1700:

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