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Just taking your question about elections to Napoleon's Corps législatif, the French National Assembly describes the situation as having the final election decided by the Senate from candidates nominated from lower groups, themselves elected from even lower groups, eventually involving local citizens (men aged over 21). This has been described as a ...


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Two marginal cases: Zionist forces during WW2. Some collaborated with the British, notably the campaign against French Syria and the Jewish brigade, while others were conducting assassinations and working towards strengthening themselves for the liberation struggle (from their POV). Basque forces during the Spanish civil war, fighting with the legal ...


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King George VI was at war with himself when the Dominions of Pakistan and India, recently declared independent of Britain, fought each other. Correct me if I am wrong here.


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Under the Meiji Constitution of Imperial Japan, the Prime Minister - like all Ministers of State - were technically appointed by the Emperor solely on his own discretion. In practice, appointments were always made on the recommendations of the genrō, a clique of prominent elder statesmen who had orchestrated the Meiji Revolution. Whenever a vacancy arose, ...


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The Taisho era saw a limited "democratization" of the selection of Prime Minister. For instance, there was the 1918 appointment of Hara Takashi, the first "commoner" Prime Minister, because of the pressures on the nobility caused by the "rice riots." Hara was a "meritocrat" who had served at various levels of the bureaucracy, as well as in the legislature. ...


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Depending of how you state the events, a candidate could the War of Spanish Succession. Philip V of Spain was recognized by the Crown of Aragon as King, but he was deeply distrusted (in part of being French, in part because the Borbon dinasty had imposed centralism in France) and later the Crown of Aragon came to support Charles II. Of course, depending of ...


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The Bishops war between the Covenanters and the Episcopals, in 17th century Scotland. I stand to be corrected, but I don't think the Covenanters had a candidate to replace Charles. So we can say that they accepted he was head of state. The English were against the Covenanters (although it was more complicated than that). England and Scotland had separate ...


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The best and closest examples are likely to be civil wars in realms that consisted of two or more kingdoms in personal union. Thus it may be a matter of interpretation how well they satisfy your question. During the 30 years war Emperor Ferdinand II was king of (part of) Hungary,etc., and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, etc. At one point Hungarian Rebel ...



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