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This graph seems to show somewhat of you're looking for: I believe these are the official census numbers, which should be taken with a large grain of salt since counts were done in different ways at different times. I've been finding this kind of information really hard to come by : /


The Novgorod Republic comes to mind. I cannot think of any family supplying more than one top ruler (be it a Prince, a posadnik or an archbishop). I cannot say if Novgorodian system was specifically set up to prevent the formation of powerful dynastic blocks, but it surely succeeded in doing so.


I don't know if this is exactly what you're looking for but I'll throw it out. There's a wikipedia article of Catholic excommunications. Most recent ones are over abortion like this one in 2012 where apparently Catholic lawmakers in Uruguay were excommunicated for giving a yes vote towards legalizing abortion. This is contested and Catholic officials ...


The Papacy is as good as it gets as an example - altough there were families with considerable influence over the choice of Cardinals and later on the Pope, and Nepotism was rampant, there were effective checks on Papal power - if one family tried to get a firm grip on the Pope/Papal position, at least one unhappy nation would start a war, not to mention the ...


I think it's because of their mentality with strong subordination to parents, boss, monarch, etc, who is senior by hierarchy. So, you can be either a "boss" or a "subordinate". If there is no monarch (the supreme "boss"), then there appear more than one equal persons, who have no "boss" above in the hierarchy, and this leads to chaos. When a chaos starts, ...


I think you are not giving the Chinese their due credit. First, interestingly enough, there was a democratic (even anarchist) social movement that tried to create egalitarian communities in uncontrolled areas during the Warring States period; these were called the School of the Tillers: In China around 400 B.C., for example, there was a philosophical ...

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