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25

1) It's much easier to hide the killings if they occur at a remote camp rather than executing people on the spot. The latter would probably have meant a much higher chance of rebellion amongst the Jews, Roma and other people who were killed. Most of the people who were deported to the camps did not know they would be killed. 2) The manpower required is much ...


23

Across the country, meaning only looking at victims in Germany and not the Nazi occupied territories, these were mainly Socialists, Jews, gypsies, certain religious groups, homosexuals, mentally handicapped people, pastors and priests who publicly voiced their resentment of the Nazis, German women who had a relationship with anyone deemed worthless by the ...


19

The purpose of to industrialize the mass execution of Jews and other "undesirables". Prior to creating the execution camps, the Nazis had executed considerable numbers of people "on the spot". This was a time consuming process not only for the actual execution but the sanitary disposal of bodies afterward. Considering that the regime was planning on ...


14

It seems like the term is Zählappell “roll call”, from the verb zählen 'to count'. It may not be necessary to look for the pronunciation in a dialect or Yiddish, if this was the official term used in the camp. The following excerpt from the Dachau camp regulations (Strafordnung) suggests it was: §3 Mit fünf Tagen strengem Arrest und mehrwöchentlicher ...


14

I believe that your textbook used an inappropriate level of precision in the number 52. Even if there were documents with such a classification of their victims, using them would concede that Nazi definitions were an useful guide to their killings and persecutions. In the 1920s and early 1930s, the nazis were engaged in paramilitary violence which might be ...


12

Don't think so. At all times, Nazi party seen Jews as a problem to be solved; they've seen them as people that shouldn't be in Greater Germany. In 1941, they didn't know what to do with Jewish citizens they already had; this was the time of ghettos and concentration camps, but Germans didn't yet consider extermination camps (like Chełmno, Bełżec, ...), ...


11

The movie is loosely based on a real story of Rubino Romeo Salmoni, Italian Jew who was kept in Fossoli Camp and later moved from there to Auschwitz (as 700 other Jews). Luckily he managed to survive the war and passed away in 2011 at the age of 91. Italians, being on Axis side, could follow their own politic about Jews. There were concentration camps and ...


11

There's (surprisingly to me) a rather extensive Wikipedia page on this subject. The main takeaway I got from it is that merely bombing the rail lines without bombing the camps themselves was not considered to be a particularly effective option. Bombing the camps was fairly extensively discussed at high levels (even consulting with Jewish community ...


11

The policies against the Jews developed gradually. The Wikipedia article on Holocaust gives a rather complete history. Complete extermination was decided on at the Wannsee conference in 1942. Many camps had a dual purpose, they were both labour camps and extermination camps, like the most well-known of them in Auschwitz-Birkenau. It is indeed hard to tell ...


10

Okay, based on some more reading, the answer to the question "was Blaskowitz indicted just for being a senior German general?" seems to be "yes, but that was not necessarily wrong". I'll try to explain what I mean. Blaskowitz was indicted as part of the Generals' Trial, together with 13 other senior commanders. The legal philosophy behind this case was the ...


10

First, the general consensus among historians is that there was no "Blitzkrieg"; the Wehrmacht incorporated some new technologies and tactics into what was basically a conventional military doctrine not dissimilar from that of other European powers. "Blitzkrieg" was invented by the newspapers, and fleshed out with fabricated details by post-war German ...


10

Goldhagen (Hitler's Willing Executioners), while drawing controversial conclusions, uses standard evidence. Goldhagen's evidentiary basis matches what I've read in Police Battalion studies, for example. So I am using Goldhagen as a handy, widely published, monographical account of modern German genocide studies. The German genocide in Europe involved ...


10

The German and Austrian Jewish population was about 750,000, of which three quarters were exterminated. Whereas the total German population was about 70 million. But 1941, when the extermination program began the number of Jewish forced labourers in German was 60,000, compared to the 2,000,000 foreign labourers (Fremdarbeiter) [source]. The Nazis decided ...


10

It is wrong to say that Italian Jews were not exterminated. They in fact were, but only after Italy was occupied by German forces. Regarding the stance of the Italian government and fascist party, it did not express much of anti-Semitic ideology. At the origins of the fascist party were many Jews, and also Jewish black-shirt brigades of Jabotinsky were ...


9

First of all notice that although many Jews might have perished in Germany, by large the highest fraction was killed in the extermination camps of occupied Poland. Back to Italy now. Even though the Italian Government put emphasis on the purity of the "Italian Race", it was not until 1938 that a specific law against the "Jewish Race" was approved. Italian ...


8

Tyler Durden's answer is excellent. But you request autobiographical evidence from Germans writing during the war. One German of note is the diarist Victor Klemperer. As a highly educated Jewish professor Klemperer was very far from representative of the general German population. However it is telling that his information (and he, understandably, took a ...


7

DISCLAIMER - the answer is written from the point of view of Reich's rulers Invading the USSR was not a strategic blunder, the timing however was unfortunate. The alliance with Japan was intended to provide the Soviets with a second front in the east, drawing their troops away from the west, thus making things easier for the Germans. And for a while it ...


6

Blaskowitz was indicted for involvement in preparing and waging an ‘illegal’ aggressive war against Poland, which led to war with the UK and France. His Affidavit [No. 5 in Volume I of the document book Exhibit Number USA-537.] was used as evidence against the High Command for involvement in aggressive war. The defence got him to add another affidavit ...


5

Originally they were tried to just shoot the people in the ghettos/prisons, but it was having a demoralising effect on their soliders. There's only so many times the average soilder can shoot people at point blank range and not suffer psycological consequences. Hence they came up with the extermination camps. The "gas showers" thing was helpful for the ...


5

My understanding is that both schools are "broad" interpretive frameworks. The obvious deficiencies of "intentionalism" are clear—we can clearly demonstrate the plurality of emergent genocidal conducts, and these cross German and NSDAP racial categories. The POW origins of systematic camp based killing should be sufficient indication. Goldhagen posits ...


5

Concerning your first question - the extent of Einsatzkommando Tunis' actions and evidence for it: The rules governing their actions were effectively identical to the rules for the Einsatzgruppen in the Soviet Union p. 138, Mallman and Cüppers. There was a meeting between Rauff and the Wehrmacht where they agreed to use Jewish forced laborers to fortify ...


5

Most Nazi concentration camps were not death camps. The Nazis ran dozens and dozens of camps, but only 4 of the camps (Chelmno, Treblinka, Sobibor and Belzec) were intended solely for extermination purposes. All 4 existed in a state of extreme isolation and secrecy during the war. The work camp at Majdanek was converted to an extermination camp late in the ...


4

In regards to the first question: There were two main bombing techniques used in World War II: area bombing and precision bombing. Area bombing was carried out by large numbers of high-altitude bombers at a time (typically tens to hundreds of bombers). This could certainly destroy a rail line, but accuracy was abysmal: the Eighth Air Force considered any ...


4

The first situation is about retrieval or recompense for property stolen and damage inflicted. The second situation is about extorting money from victims of oppression. They are not remotely comparable, except that they both have their genesis in the Holocaust. This question just sounds like provocation. A group of people, the Nazi regime and its ...


4

If the thrust of the question is, did Hitler lose World War II because of the way he treated the Jews and other people he didn't like, that is a very interesting question. There are actually TWO issues here. 1) Did the cost of resources expended in the Holocaust help defeat the war effort, and 2) Did the "opportunity cost" of the Holocaust help the defeat ...


4

Does this page answer your question? UPDT: You might also want to gave a good look at this book. Specifically, search for "David Cole" in it. UPDT 2: Thanks to Eugene Seidel, we know what is David Cole up to these days.


3

As the end of the war was approaching, we see more and more effort on the part of at least the people in the field towards eliminating evidence of their actions. This led to prisoners (both Jews, other concentration camp inmates, and prisoners of war) being transported (often on foot for lack of trains and trucks, as well as to kill them through exhaustion) ...


3

I think the case of the French campaign in may/june 1940 conclusively answers this question in the negative. Indeed, Blitzkieg tactics designed to entrap the opposing armies were used systematically, with great efficiency and with great success during the whole period. After the armistice, the Reich annexed Alsace and Moselle, where Jews could be find in ...


3

There is a large difference between bombing a military target and a civilian target. And that's true even if the "same" railroad can be either one or the other. In military bombing, the idea is not to destroy the target per se, but to "put it out of action" during a critical time period, say right before a battle. For instance, the Allies bombed a lot of ...


2

I recall a line from the World at War, episode 20 in which a commander remarks that the method of execution on the spot was producing a German nation of brutes and that another means of [genocide] would be preferable.



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