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40

The Holy Roman Empire (of the German Nations) was a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, and multi-lingual coalition from its (unofficial) founding by Charlemagne in the 9th century AD. The German Empire would be a better term in fact, as it was founded and typically ruled by Germanic peoples. (Charlemagne himself was a Frank.) As Voltaire once perceptively quipped,...


22

The Holy Roman Empire actually persisted into the early 19th century. At this time it was centralized in the loosely defined and allied Germanic states/kingdoms. Following the rise of Napoleon and the defeat of many different, unaligned German kingdoms' forces by Napoleon's forces, Napoleon was able to sweep across the nation we now know as Germany. One of ...


16

Mainly German, but a lot of literature wasn't vernacular (in your language) until after the printing press, so Latin was used to read books (if you were educated). Italian was also used in the southern part of the HRE. (Pulled from A History of Western Society by John McKay)


15

The inscription LEOPOLDUS II D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D abbreviates the following: Leopoldus Secundus, Dei gratia Romanorum imperator semper augustus; Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiae rex; Archidux Austriae; Burgundiae et Lotharingiae dux These refer to, in order, his titles of: By Grace of God, Holy Roman Emperor, the always august King of Germany, ...


13

"It is chivalry that has no equal in the world; without seeing it with your own eyes, its vigor and splendor is impossible to imagine." (Cosimo Brunetti, 1676) The answer is both "yes", as it's completely different kind of hussars that the one mentioned in the question about effectiveness of Cossack cavalry, and "no", as there were around 20,000 horses in ...


13

While Kutná Hora was producing silver, I don't think that this commodity or any other commodity (and surely not one stolen from a colony – colonies didn't really exist) was the main driver behind the glory of the Golden Era – although the silver was obviously needed for our hard currency, the Prague Groschen (picture below). The true reasons were ...


13

Officially it collapsed after falling to Napoleon with the 4th treaty of Pressburg, but had been fading for some time before that. The empire was pretty decentrized in nature, but various events such as the Peace of Westphalia after the thirty years war, which granted dominions effectively independence in all but name. Nations, especially the Hapsburgs in ...


12

The three ecclesiastic electorates; Trier, Cologne, and Mainz have well documented lists of the Archbishop-Electors who served and at what times. The majority of them in the latter period of the Holy Roman Empire are indeed of noble descent. However, John I of Trier is presumably to have been of commoner descent, as stated in this 1881 publication by ...


11

In a decree called the Golden Bull of 1356, which set the election system of the Holy Roman Emperor, it was specified that the elector's sons should speak the three imperial languages - German, Italian and Czech.


11

I am sorry this is the only thing I could find. because the royal court was constantly moving, Frederik's library was dispersed in many different places; the part that he carried with him, so presumably the dearest one, was seized by his enemies, and thus likely divided as loot between different factions; parts were left in his different residencies; of ...


11

You are referring to the Schwarze Reiters (i.e. black riders), named after the dark armour they wore. This was a type of cavalry that appeared in Germany after the decline of the medieval lancers, but later became a generic name (usually shortened to just reiters) for German cavalry mercenaries. Around the mid-16th century, advancements in firearms as well ...


9

Imagine the USA electoral process: you don't technically elect the president, you elect someone into the electoral college of your state who elects for the president every 4 years, and you elect some members of congress and the senate every 2. Now imagine that congress doesn't exist, every state gets 1 appointed senator, and you, the filthy lowborn peasant,...


9

It didn't - Germany was united several times even prior to the unification of France, Spain or England under strong central governments. Otto I and Frederick I (Barbarossa) being two examples of Emperors who united Germany long before Spain united under the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella in 1469; Louis XIV captivated his nobles and courtiers at ...


9

- How were the borders of small European principalities maintained or secured? They weren't, really. Even accurate maps didn't exist until sometime in the late 18th century when the Longitude Problem was solved. However, as all of these little sovereignties were the personal possession of their sovereign, this did not affect the common people in their ...


9

Andrew Wheatcroft's The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans, and the Battle for Europe contains the argument that both the Habsburg Empire (in the West) and the Ottoman Empire (in the East) considered themselves to be successors of the Roman Empire by the 17th century. Wheatcroft points out that both empires ascended almost in parallel: Frederick III ...


8

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about being an Archduchess of Austria. Indeed, I'm not sure how one could ask for a more legitimate bride than a princess of Europe's most prestigious royal house. In ...


8

The problem with doing that is that there was an established precedent in Western Europe that an "emperor" had to be proclaimed as such by the pope. Even Napoleon, who held a popular referendum on his accession to Emperor, required a Papal ceremony to make it official. For a protestant ruler, that's obviously not going to happen. Now, he could I suppose ...


7

It was an internal fight in Sienna, Karl IV supported the party of twelve (Dodicini), probably seeking to extend his influence in the city. According to the German Wikipedia article on the topic, the Dodicini originally came to power with the help of the Salimbeni family and were favored by Karl IV. They didn't stay long and were replaced by a new council ...


6

To build on GPierce's answer, the HRE functionally collapsed much before that time. The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) had really taken a toll on the HRE's central government. It left the country politically and religiously divided, which was a major issue to unification at that point in time. The country was ruled by princes who controlled city states that ...


6

You have somewhat answered your own question. The Reeve and Bailiff were essentially the same job in Medieval England. The Reeve was a person that oversaw the land and crops and was in charge of the peasants. A reeve was basically an estate manager. A reeve is actually described in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, describing the reeve as a highly ...


5

Here's what I've collected from various sources up to this time: Hungarian Holy Lance Historians agree that one of them belonged to Saint Stephen, first king of Hungary. Otto III took a crown for Stephen I to Gniezno and it was sent from there to Hungary, but no sources I could find clarify if the spear came to Hungary the same way. This "Polish route" is ...


5

After some reading up I have the beginnings of an answer here, I think. The partition of the Habsburg lands actually took place in 1521 (The pact of Worms) and 1522 (The pact of Brussels), way before Philip II was even born. By the Worms and Brussels agreements, which were actually family documents and not diplomatic instruments, Charles's brother ...


5

The striking thing was that France and Austria had been political rivals going back to the time of Francis I (France) and Charles V (Austria). Until the mid 18th century. After winning the 100 Years' War, France became the strongest power in western Europe. Spain and Austria (counting the Holy Roman Empire) were two and three, and when Princess Juana of ...


5

You have confused the very real changes that occurred to the borders over the 170 years from roughly 1520 to 1700 with the concept that the borders were vague throughout that time. That span of years encompasses both the Thirty Years War in Germany, the Eighty years War of Dutch Independence, the War of the League of Augsburg, and several smaller conflicts. ...


5

Wherever Henry the Fowler happened to be. During this period, the kingdom was basically ruled from wherever its king held court. There was no single "ruling seat" per se since the King tended to move around his kingdom a lot, hunting, touring as well as campaigning. The closest is probably the several preferred residences that kings would have had. These ...


4

The Holy Roman Empire was a bit more unified during even its latest phase than many answers have said. After the thirty ears war many German sates rallied to support he Emperor in the period calling the Imperial reaction which lasted until the 1720s when Emperor Charles VI had to curry favor with the various states to get their support for his daughter's ...


4

Case for Italy and/or Vatican Italy was the place where Roman Empire originated and Rome is located. They still speak a language descendant from Latin. Rome was the most important city throughout Middle Ages and the Pope usually was the one with monopoly on conferring the imperial title. Also to become an emperor it was usually required to become king of ...


4

The nearest modern equivalent to what the Holy Roman Empire was is a federation. It consisted of a large set (up to 1.800) semi-independent areas. When elected, the Holy Roman Empire would not gain complete control over these areas, instead these areas all had their own rule or administration which was generally inherited.


4

Actually papal consent was no longer required. On July 16, 1338, six of the seven electors met at Rhense and declared that election by a majority of electors was enough to make someone King of the Romans and future emperor, and popes had no right to interfere. Emperor Louis IV decreed on August 6, 1338, that the person elected immediately had full imperial ...


4

As far as I know, most if not all rulers in Christian Europe "conceded that the Emperor was the universal lord of Christendom, but only in high office, not in deed" (taken from The Prince and the Law, 1200-1600, which speaks specifically about the King of France). Thus, most were just concerned with obtaining and securing liberties for themselves and their ...



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