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8

The bible, in the story of Noah, has seven commandments just after the flood, that are given to the sons of Noah. The bible explicitly states "He who spills the blood of man, his blood shall be spilled" (my translation from the Hebrew original. Jewish tradition has it as seven commandments, written out by the Rambam, who lived from 1138 to 1204. The ...


6

Here is the full text of the Walsh Commission in html: http://www.archive.org/stream/industrialrelati01unitrich/industrialrelati01unitrich_djvu.txt here is the text on Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=CtgJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA1&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false here is a pdf of the text from Cornell Library: ...


4

The basic problem with this question is that the Papacy really didn't start producing a large number of encyclicals until Leo XII in the middle of the 19th century. Prior to that, the Papal Bull would be used, as would apostolic letters, but Leo XIII really revolutionized the practice. I highly recommend Papalencyclicals.net for more sources. Another ...


3

Review the definition of Human Shield in wikipedia; there are multiple examples of countries using their own population, or that of their allies as human shields. Note that almost every example is contested by one side or the other. This is in part because it would violate the Geneva convention. During interrogation by Allied intelligence officers in ...


3

Europe gained limited religious tolerance by fire blood murder starvation war and rape. The guarantee of religious tolerance is cuius regio eius religio: that the nature of the person of the sovereign dictates the religion of the sovereign's realm. Between princes, religious toleration was obligatory due to violence. Firstly in the Peace of Augsburg ...


3

After some research i have also found this verse (Galatians 3:28, NIV) in New Testament: There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. It might be younger than Hammurabi Code or story of Noah but in my opinion it describes freedom in little bit wider aspect so it is still ...


2

Equality can be different: equality before law, equality before God, economic equality, racial/physiological equality, sexual equality etc etc etc. Neither Judaism nor Christianity nor traditional classical religion provided for universal equality. Judaism permits slavery (inequality before law) provides that Jews are the chosen people, prefers ...


2

If I were to name a non-sectarian document, I would cite the Hammurabi Code dates to somewhere in the early 18th century BC. It has the basic, "presumed innocent" idea.


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Since the author has clarified in the comments that she is interested in ancient codes of civil law rather than in modern concept of human rights, I hereby post another answer. The most ancient known code of civil law is the Shumerian code of Ur-Nammu. It is about 15 centuries more ancient than the Cyrus cylinder. There is no doubt though that this code of ...


2

I'm not even attempting to answer the whole question, just want to give example of a country which managed to avoid the bloody religious wars of Germany or France ( other answer implies that it was the only way to reach religious tolerance ). That country was Polish - Lithuanian Commonwealth, which spanned a large chunk of Europe, and was mostly Catholic, ...


1

Wikipedia has an excellent overview of the history of religious tolerance from antiquity to the modern day. (Unfortunately, it seems to have been ham-handedly shoe-horned into the entry for Tolerance, which is a political science thing unto itself. Gotta love the never-ending Wiki edit wars...) Here is another, under the heading of "Christian Debate on ...


1

What you mean is not humanism by any definition. One can call it tolerance or pluralism. In ancient, polytheistic world it was quite common: people tended to believe that all deities worshiped by other peoples also existed. They were seen either as local deities or just other names for the already known deities. It was the spread of Abrahamic religions ...


1

Well you can look on the Amnesty International web site, I found a description page there on Prisoners of Conscience that links to individuals. As to individual lists you can across one at Wikipedia but I also found at least one on their site for Cuba that lists many people. You can probably find others, though I didn't do an indepth look on the site. As ...


1

Ugarkina of Lagash, circa the 24th century BCE, is generally credited* as the first effective reformer in recorded history to grant broad legal rights to commoners, the poor and disabled, and elevate many more women into the ranks of the political elite while reigning in secular corruption and abuse of power by wealthy landowners and the priestly class. ...


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(I have limits on how many references I can add. I will bold important terms that have useful Wikipedia pages) The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled. It was signed in 1948 by the UN General Assembly. It elaborates on the ideas of: 1. US President ...



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