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22

Germany–Poland The initial border was drawn during the Potsdam Conference in the aftermath of the second world war, on 1945-08-02. The border was finalised by a joint East German-Polish commission in the aftermath of the Treaty of Zgorzelec on 1951-01-27. The last change happened on 1989-05-22 with redrawing of the sea border north of Usedom, gaining (then) ...


16

The moral justification isn't hard to find. Russia was the only Allied power to enter the war "on its own". If you look at the stated reasons of other countries: Germany declared war on France because it expected France to ally with Russia. Great Britain joined the war because Germany violated Belgian neutrality. And USA joined the war because of German ...


14

A Russian revolution caused by the Bolsheviks was most definitely the goal of the Germans when they allowed Lenin to pass through their lands. Germany wished to undermine, or end, the Russian war effort and sending Lenin back was done for that purpose. If true, who came up with the idea and was there any consideration that a communist Russia could ...


8

I'll just try to put some further tidbits into the three questions. "Lenins Rückkehr nach Russland 1917: Die deutschen Akten" has from Page 39 on a telegram conversation between the German ambassador in Bern von Romberg and the Auswärtige Amt (Foreign Bureau). It starts with von Romberg 7th September 1914: Russian, who seems to have contact with ...


8

Germany's borders were defined by three wars. After its victory in the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 Germany took Alsace, and a quarter of Lorraine from France, defining its Western border. After the Allied victory in World War I in 1918, France took back Alsace-Lorraine, some adjustments were made in Belgium's favor further north, and a 60-mile wide "Polish ...


7

The Reichstag was the Parliament of the German Empire from 1871- 1918. It had less force than government, but still was very powerful. The legislature was bicameral; the two houses were the Reichstag and Bundesrat. After the Parliament of United Kingdom, the Reichstag was one of the most progressive parliaments in Europe. Members of the Reichstag were ...


7

The german Wikipedia has a bit about this. In short: No - it was illegal in WWI. And during the Nazis it was deadly. EDIT: Den Ersten Weltkrieg betrachtete die Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft ebenso wie die SPD als deutschen Verteidigungskrieg und lehnte die Kriegsdienstverweigerung deshalb weiterhin ab. Sie erlitt mit anderen deutschen pazifistischen ...


7

The German Empire in 1871 was nearly 2 1/2 times as large (in area) as Prussia alone had been 11 years earlier: According to Wikipedia the population of Prussia in 1871 was 24.6MM, and that of the entire German Empire was 40.0MM; note of course that the former includes all the territories conquered/coalesced in the preceding decade. The German Empire's ...


7

In the big picture, Germany wanted a large empire and a large navy, which was incompatible with Britain's survival as a Great Power. This really didn't have anything to do with how the war directly started, but shaped a lot of the diplomacy around it. This doesn't assign responsibility either, as it would be just as reasonable to accuse Britain of holding ...


6

Hitler says early in Mein Kampf I studied Bismarck's exceptional legislation in its original concept, its operation and its results. He praises various policies and the diplomacy of Bismarck's government, and towards the end declaims What miserable pigmies our sham statesmen in Germany appear by comparison with him. And how nauseating it is to ...


5

A short answer with a slightly out-of-the box viewpoint: Germany wanted power and a big empire. This put Germany at odds with Britain, and their allies Austria-Hungary was already at odds with Russia, which together put these two allies at odds with most of Europe. This could have been solved and handled in various ways, but as Germany was during this time ...


5

Colony is being used here more in the "biological" sense. Strictly this means a group of individuals of the same species living closely together, but here it's being co-opted to mean a group of individuals of the same nationality living outside their own country but retaining their own culture and society to keep themselves distinct from the native ...


5

I think the biggest motivation for excluding women as successors is to limit the number of potential heirs and to concentrate power for the reigning sovereign. Furthermore the reasons against doing so are weak. Japanese Empresses First, a background of Japanese empresses. From Wikipedia: Empress Suiko (554–628), r. 593–628—first ruling empress Empress ...


4

Both sides did quite a lot of testing pre-war. That's why they had detailed tables that showed that X shells in Y hours would destroy anything. As it turned out, though, all this testing turned out to be irrelevant to the actual battlefield conditions of the Trenches. The problem is that in a war with your troops at risk, countries are far more willing to ...


4

Having done a bit more research I have found this page concerning Awards and Promotions on a website regarding Werner Voss. The website states that, as would be standard, all soldiers started of with the rank of "Soldat" or a unit based equivalent. It also states: Furthermore German Soldiers progressed through the ranks at a very slow pace. Typically a ...


4

Schleswig-Holstein became the rallying point for a united Germany, first in a war of Prussia and Austria against Denmark for the two provinces, then in a war of Prussia versus Austria. When Prussia won both times, it established itself as the dominant power in north Germany, around which the north German states coalesced. (Pulling in south Germany came ...


3

Germany's current geographic shape was largely formed in wars. One can go arbitrarily far into the past here but it will get very messy - unification of Germany is probably a good start, there were relatively few changes after that. Germany's unification in 1871 was preceded by the Franco-Prussian War in which Prussia (and the German Empire) got Alsace and ...


2

Although, as you note, millions of shells were fired before the larger battles, the damage done by these shells was largely incidental and known to be so. Of much greater significance leading up to an assault was the suppression of enemy fire while friendly troops were in No-Man's Land, and a further shock-induced delay after the barrage lifted before ...


2

(I think @congusbongus made some very good points concerning the lack of reasons against male-only succession, but I disagree with the motivations given in that answer. While plausible, "limiting heirs" and "concentrate power" seems to me like deductions borne of faulty premises regarding imperial power. Moreover, the Japanese were extremely concerned with ...


2

I think it is easier to speak about differences. I was told in school that Bismarck warned against war with Russia, while in Hitler's ideology it was one of the key points. I have no online references though.


2

To add to Tom Au's and Wladimir Palant's answers: On the eastern side, many of the land belonging to Poland were annexed over the 18th and 19th centuries between Prussia, Austria, and Russia. These defined some of the borders used later.


2

By supporting German states in their bid for independence from Denmark, Prussia was able to position itself as a champion of German nationalism, particularly in the question between a "small" Germany excluding Austria, and a "great" Germany including it.



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