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22

It is actually a bit of a myth that everyone believed the world to be flat until Columbus. It is true that a lot of ancient societies believed that as a matter of cultural mythology. This was true both for the ancient Greeks as well as the ancient Indians. However, any ancient navigator who looked to the horizon on the sea on a calm day could clearly see ...


21

First, the easier part on Christianity. As the other reply says, the British were (mostly) unwilling to convert Indians in order to avoid inflaming local religious sentiments. In fact, the British were so cautious on this that they would probably even tolerated the practices of sati and child marriage had some Indian reformers (such as Ram Mohan Roy) not ...


18

Hitler did not consider Indians to be Aryans at all. Instead, he believed them to be barbaric Asians who did not deserve to enjoy freedom as a country. He wanted India to remain subjugated under the British (he said this openly in his book) permanently. He pointedly refused Bose's request to withdraw this statement in his only meeting with Bose. As for ...


17

It looks fairly likely this story was invented around the turn of the 21'st Century. The hits against it are: No reference to it has ever been found any older than 1998 (reportedly from a American neo-gnostic publication). Lord Macauly is known to have been in the middle of a stint in India (halfway around the world) in 1835 when this was supposedly ...


13

I think @T.E.D.'s answer makes a very convincing case for the speech being a modern forgery, like the Protocols or the Dulles Plan. It's also, imho, a very inept forgery. As T.E.D. has pointed out the language is too modern. As one who has read some works by Macaulay, I must also add that the style does not seem to be his and is very much inferior. To ...


13

In regards to the battle between Alexander and Porus, both accounts are correct, in their own way. Alexander won the battle, and received an acknowledgement of such from Porus; Porus won the war, by convincing the Greek army (if perhaps not Alexander himself) that continuing was pointlessly expensive. Both sides saved face through the reappointment of ...


12

In 1943, some 3 million indian subjects of the British Raj died due to bengal famine. I think the most authentic and rich source for examining and finding evidences against Churchill in this incident is Madhusree Mukerjee's book, 'Churchill's Secret War', which reveals a side of Churchill's largely ignored in the West and considerably tarnishes his heroic ...


10

Hitler was an Chameleon opportunist who used the word "Aryan", in different contexts to supplement his political ideologies, which were mainly to conquer Europe, and the systematic eradication of Jews. The Earliest definition of Aryan, given out by the Nazis, was a race of people belonging to "Indo-European tribes" and the five European sub-races Nordic, ...


8

No Kalapas are defined as the smallest units of physical matter If we stop at wikipedia, then Hinduism, modern physics and the ancient greeks have a theory of the atom. But a definition does not really equate to a theory. Kalapas are material units very much smaller than atoms, which die out immediately after they come into being. Each kalapa is a ...


7

Time and again India has seen some reformers who revolutionize the thoughts of the masses. When Buddhism was in full force in India, Adi Shankara was born to revive Hinduism. During the Mughal Period, Tulsidas, Surdas and others deeply imposed the faith of Hindus in God. Tulsidas wrote Ram Charitra Manas whereas Surdas composed many devotional songs about ...


7

I strongly suggest you read the celebrated and widely read and revered books on Ancient India by: Romila Thapar (Marxist in views) A. L. Basham (Non-partisan) You can also refer to the bibliography of the Wikipedia page Indian campaign of Alexander the Great. In earlier times, India ran from the Hindukush mountains(Afghanistan) to the Himalayas, and ...


7

The bulk of India then was not controlled by Porus, but by the Nanda dynasty, centered at Pataliputra. Porus controlled only a small section of India, close to Punjab (now divided between Pakistan as well as India). The Nandas were quite a powerful force, and the Greek troops had become war-weary (whether they actually refused orders is open to debate). So, ...


7

The concept of "Ownership" as in the right to sell (dispose) was a concept from the west that did not exist in India before the arrival of the Europeans. Land was plentiful, so there was no need to buy land. The "tenant" or cultivator had rights, but paid taxes to the crown. The king/monarch could evict the cultivator for not paying taxes. But the land that ...


6

Uniformity: Ancient India was essentially Hindu-ruled. And its foundation of judicial system was based on the concept of 'Dharma', or rules of right conduct, as outlined in the puranas and smritis(remembrance) which explains vedic scriptures. The King had no independent authority but derived his powers from `Dharma’, which he was expected to uphold. So, ...


6

As one might expect, it is a tricky business to talk generally about practices on the Indian subcontinent. For most things that is as true today as it is for the subcontinent of centuries ago. The diversity of religions, cultures, languages, and the complex political realities over the centuries means that this answer really must be more of a sampling of the ...


6

The military relations between India and Russia is based on "India's needs and Russia's opportunism". India needs technology and Russia provides it, by selling it. By this Russia gets lot of money, a friend and balance against West(until cold war) and a counterweight to threats from China and Islamist fundamentalits. The new relation(post cold war) is ...


6

Most people who are or want to be political leaders try to look like they love children, and children love them. The reason is very simple: Most adult people are parents. For almost all parents there is nothing more important in the world than their children. Hence, the best way to rise in the eyes of parents, and hence the best way to rise in the eyes of ...


6

First of all, starting a violent rebellion and winning an election is two completely different things. A party that does one thing is not in any way guaranteed to do the other, especially if they are perceived to have lost the fight, or been fighting without cause. As such, the question is a bit strange in the first place. Secondly, you ask if people lost ...


5

The figure is Bringhi, who refused to worship Parvati/Gauri and is an important part in the legend of Ardhanarishvara, and is often depicted with Shiva:


5

The Religion Factor To understand this, you have to understand Hinduism. Let me take up my own case- a Kokanast Maharashtrian Brahman. This is a sub-caste. The point of interest to us here is the amazing similarity in diversity in India. Hinduism (Sanaatan Dharm) is an individual, a highly individual religion. it is common to have the Father worship Lord ...


5

Well, as stated by Monster Truck there are many theories about when the "weekly off" was introduced to India. For those of you who are interested, one of the more common theories is that it was introduced during British rule in the country due to the observance of the sabbath. It is also highly likely that rest days were observed amongst members of the ...


5

When Alexander built his great empire, what he was essentially doing is taking over the Achaemenid Empire piece by piece, at a point when the empire was weakened by internal fights. The Kingdom of Pauruva is sometimes claimed to have lain outside the Achaemenid empire, but earlier Persian rulers seems to have claimed it was a part of the empire. This ...


5

I'll provide a few comparisons; this is an interesting question that deserves a book length treatment. My apologies if in my attempt to be brief I oversimplify either side. The American revolution occurred at the beginning of the British imperial age; the first Indian rebellion occurred during the height of Imperial power. The American revolution occurred ...


5

Some of the oldest known languages in the Indian Subcontinent were Pali, Sanskrit, Brahmi, Prakrit. Prakrit definitely predates Sanskrit, but Sanskrit was popularized as a "marga" or "higher" language by the monarchs at a certain point after the "Aryan" influence. Several scripts too were known, such as Kharoshti, derived from Aramaic. The Indus Valley ...


5

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in ...


4

Shahaji Bhonsle is the biological father of Chhatrapati Shivaji. There are innumerable sources for this, two are mentioned below: Shivaji and His Times by Sir Jadunath Sarkar Shivaji by Setu Madhavrao Pagadi Without any facts and evidences, James Laine in his book claims a Hindu Brahman scholar and Shivaji's teacher, Dadoji Konddev as Chhatrapati ...


4

The answers @bhau and @coleopterist gave are good and marshal a lot of important evidence, but there are complementary points of view someone ought to mention - so I guess it falls to me to do this. Madhusree Mukerjee's findings have been disputed by the eminent Indian economist Amartya Sen. I haven't read both books yet but perusal of the wiki entry about ...


4

The Moghuls ruled only the northern half or 2/3 of India, not the entire sub-continent, and practiced a more tolerant version of Islam than the Arabs further West. Update: Reading further on Aurangzeb reveals that in fact he did actively attempt conversion of his subjects to Islam. They took so nicely to the attempted proselytization that they constantly ...


4

There were a multitude of complex factors that led to the decline of Buddhism around the 12th Century. But first some caveats: Buddhism is/was not a monolithic entity- there are many "Buddhisms". No religion, culture, social custom has ever died out completely in India, right from the times of Mohenjodaro- they have lived on in new forms in new ...


3

I think first we should understand riot in its present context. Riot is an extreme form of lawlessness where administration is not able to control the violent mass which is indulged in criminal activity of many kinds targeted against particular group. Rulers or people associated with rulers massacring the helpless civilains should not be considered as riot. ...



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