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27

It is actually a bit of a myth that everyone believed the world to be flat until Columbus. It is true that a lot of ancient societies believed that as a matter of cultural mythology. This was true both for the ancient Greeks as well as the ancient Indians. However, any ancient navigator who looked to the horizon on the sea on a calm day could clearly see ...


17

Because China was actually pretty far from India. For most of the past millennia, China and India were not "neighbouring countries" in any meaningful sense of the word. Most Chinese empires did not actually stretch all the way to the Indian subcontinent. It seems you're considering China and India based on their modern borders, but that is misleading: ...


12

It is difficult to prove a negative (that Britain did not intentionally create problematic borders), but there are good reasons to believe that there was no conspiracy to create problematic borders. To support my claim, I mainly draw upon an excellent summary given by Chester, and the "Problems in the process" section of the Wikipedia article on the ...


12

Because it didn't have a choice: it had neither the will to defy the British Government, nor the ability to do so. Remember corporations are not people; its shareholders and directors were. In this case, most of them were British, owning properties and with aspirations in Britain. That alone made resisting a duly constituted Act of Parliament by force ...


11

Genghis Khan mostly made a one-way trip. There were two main branches of the Silk Road (which wasn't an actual road, but rather an itinerary). One passed north of the Himalayas and one south (or by ship through the Arabian Sea). These were the easiest customary itineraries one could take to cross Asia, as they minimized the amount of mountain-crossing one ...


10

This is partly covered in the article "India and the Great Divergence: An Anglo-Indian Comparison of GDP per Capita, 1600-1871" by Stephen Broadberry and Bishnupriya Gupta. The article is available here: http://www.lse.ac.uk/economicHistory/pdf/Broadberry/IndianGDPpre1970v7.pdf . (Note that in-progress articles like this have a tendency to disappear from ...


10

Yes, surprising as it is, I found a credible sources indicating that there was some discussion of offering India East Africa as a mandate. Perhaps it is useful for others who wish to read more about this a full detail of my sources. In "How India Became Territorial: Foreign Policy, Diaspora, Geopolitics (2014)" by Itty Abraham, I found this quote: On ...


9

I am Adrienne Mayor and I never wrote that Porus used any kind of poison weapons, not swords or arrows and certainly not poisoned elephant tusks, as claimed on About.com and the Univ. of Washington sites See my "Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World" (Overlook/Duckworth, 2003, 2009) pp 88-91 and ...


8

Yes. Off the top of my head, jauhar is reminiscent of the Siege of Masada. Looking at the wikipedia entry for jauhar (which you linked), I see also a reference to Balinese puputan. Finally, here is a list of historical mass suicides, a number of which fit the jauhar pattern (women of a defeated group suiciding to avoid capture or slavery). In some cases, men ...


7

The concept of "Ownership" as in the right to sell (dispose) was a concept from the west that did not exist in India before the arrival of the Europeans. Land was plentiful, so there was no need to buy land. The "tenant" or cultivator had rights, but paid taxes to the crown. The king/monarch could evict the cultivator for not paying taxes. But the land that ...


6

Indian WWI-recruitment poster was very peculiar. Material benefits, instead of patriotism, were employed to encourage recruitment. Indian recruitment poster. Urdu translation reads: 'Who will take this uniform, money and rifle? The one who will join the army. Source: Imperial war museum.


6

Yes. Alcohol has been produced in India from ancient times. But they may not qualify as "wine, beer, whiskey". The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500–700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, (“Reinterpretation and Synthesis”) is the time ...


5

There were a multitude of complex factors that led to the decline of Buddhism around the 12th Century. But first some caveats: Buddhism is/was not a monolithic entity- there are many "Buddhisms". No religion, culture, social custom has ever died out completely in India, right from the times of Mohenjodaro- they have lived on in new forms in new ...


5

Some of the oldest known languages in the Indian Subcontinent were Pali, Sanskrit, Brahmi, Prakrit. Prakrit definitely predates Sanskrit, but Sanskrit was popularized as a "marga" or "higher" language by the monarchs at a certain point after the "Aryan" influence. Several scripts too were known, such as Kharoshti, derived from Aramaic. The Indus Valley ...


5

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in ...


5

The premise of the question is incorrect. Hinduism is most certainly and very much prevalent in South India, along with Islam, Christianity, and many other religions. There is no such thing as Dravidianism. If there was such a thing in ancient times, it is a highly debated and contentious issue. Genetics and many other modern tools seem to suggest that these ...


5

"Living Standards" require certain measures or standards. It is therefore very difficult to come to empirical conclusions. On what basis do we judge living standards? However, if we consider Gross Domestic Product and Per Capita Gross Domestic Product, as well as wages in absolute terms, that is taking some particular year as a base (100) then a few ...


5


5

Hinduism(Sanathana Dharma) is mainly a culture than a religion which is followed in India. The culture of one region is based on that region's weather conditions and nature. . Cremation of bodies is a real example of this fact. Soil in India is wet type and have more water in it. If dead bodies are buried under soil, the bio degradation take place and body ...


5

Good Fences Make Good Neighboors The answer consists of 1 word - Himalayas. Okay, let me add the second word: Tibet. Basically, the two cultures have been completely separated by an insurmountable barrier (not to mention that the fact that India and China share a border today is an artifact of the 20th century, when China annexed Tibet).


4

Firstly, linguistic groups do not represent genetic haplogroups. If by "race" we mean a constructed identity based upon language, then the debate on AIT, OIT (Out of India Theory) and other such theories make sense. With respect to genes, however, the results are far more confusing, because genetic 'types' seem to be much more mixed up. This study reported ...


4

There is a gap of fifteen centuries between the demise of Indus script, and the origin of Brahmi script. More, Indus Valley script remains undeciphered despite the corpus of literature written in Brahmi script. On the other hand, there are substantial and irreconcilable differences between Kharosthi, which was based on Aramaic, and Brahmi. The most current ...


4

Aboutcivil.org estimates the value at 50 million rupees based on the price of gold to rupees at the time. The site estimates the value at $500 million in 2005. At 1.4 rupees per gram of gold, that's around 35,700 kilograms of gold. Today that's worth around $1.5 billion. Certainly enough to put a dent in almost any treasury.


4

There are certainly references to "poison" and these come from Diodorus, Arrian, Plutarch and Justin. But these seem more like many of the other fantasies that the Greeks spun- especially if you consider the methods of preparation of the poison and how Alexander was told in a dream about the antidote. Also, the only reference to anyone being ...


4

From what evidence I have been able to find, the tramway opened in 1902, soon after electricity was introduced to the walled city ("old" Delhi). The Viceroy at the time was Lord Curzon. As you have discovered, many newspaper articles have been quoting a different, but very specific date: March 6, 1908. The ultimate source for all of these articles appears ...


4

He didn't. Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad captured Rai Pithora in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192, and had him executed. Because Muhammad of Ghor was assassinated by unknown persons in 1206, a story appeared that it was Prithviraj who somehow took his revenge. That story has no historical basis.


4

Just an addendum to Rajib’s comprehensive answer. The Buddhist Jātakas are a collection of stories about the historical Buddha’s previous lives – the Theravada version contains roughly 550. Many feature animals as characters and are drawn from folkloric sources. The Kumbha-jātaka (No. 512) contains an explanation of the origins of alcohol as an ...


4

Neither of them were really part of India to begin with. Sri Lanka was formerly the British Crown Colony of Ceylon, which grew out of an earlier Dutch colony. In 1795, during the Napoleonic Wars, Britain took over control of Sri Lanka's coastlines from the Dutch Republic. The British East India Company was entrusted to administer the area, but it was ...


4

Origins: There are slightly different views on when Buddhism entered, flourished and declined in the Kerala region. The region itself has been variously designated through history as part of the Chola kingdom (from 150 C.E.) and later as the state of Travancore under the Tirunals prior to India's independence. One view is that Buddhism flourished only for a ...


4

British Government British policy is that the relationship between the British Crown and the Indian States terminates in full, without being transferred to the newly created India or Pakistan. It is therefore up to the princely states themselves to decide which of the two dominions they would join. This is expressed in the Indian Independence Act 1947, ...



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