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7

There is a history of anti-Chinese sentiment in Indonesia, but even taking that into consideration, the violence of 1998 was unusually extreme and virulent, attributed to the encouragement of the army and the Suharto regime. Jemma Purdey's Anti-Chinese Violence in Indonesia, 1996–1999 (2006) examines large-scale violence of the kind exemplfieid by the 1998 ...


7

Te VOC was not interested in control of people or land, but trade. For example nutmeg; the dutch burned every bit of it except on an island of 1 square km so they could control all of it. IIRC the value would go from 1 in Indonesia to 50000 in Amsterdam. The VOC was the single most profitable company in history (according to my prof.). A journey would take a ...


6

To fill out JK's answer: the VOC directly controlled very little except the shipping routes to Amsterdam (and a few other Dutch ports, but the majority of goods arrived at Amsterdam). Indirectly, through deals and influence at the local courts of the rulers of the islands, they controlled far more. By supplying those rulers with weapons, advisors, European ...


6

You probably confused Papua New Guinea with West New Papua, a region that is indeed under Indonesian administration. Papua New Guinea, on the other hand, was administrated by Australia from 1906 to 1975. It's north part was under control of the German Empire from 1884 to 1914, when it was surrendered to Australia. Papua New Guinea became self governing on ...


3

Perhaps the best way to think of this question is to recognize that there are roughly three ways to think about right/legitimacy, which correspond to the angle of one's approach: the state, domestic stakeholders, and the international community. Each of these are considered below. We should also recognize the difference between a "claim" to legitimacy, and ...


2

The Wikipedia article says: Although some PKI branches organised resistance and reprisal killings, most went passively to their deaths Citing this reference I can not access: McDonald (1980), p. 53; Friend (2003), p. 115. McDonald, Hamish (1980). Suharto's Indonesia. Melbourne: Fontana Books. ISBN 0-00-635721-0. Friend, T. (2003). ...


2

This Wikipedia article shows the results of the 1930 Dutch East Indies census (in the Social History section), listing 240,417 Europeans out of a total population of over 60.7MM. Calculating this as 0.4% European (with an additional 2.2%, or 1.35MM, Chinese and other foreign orientals), the European population was outnumbered 250-1 and the non-indigenous ...


1

The Japanese, unlike the Germans, did not use locals to run the country. They replaced the entire system of government with their own, installed (supposedly, in effect chosen based on them not being Dutch) "natives" in junior roles. So there were no local police, clerks, etc. etc. who could be charged with collaborating with the enemy. They also rounded up ...



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