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12

First of all, France's goal is not to "undermine its relationship with Turkey" as you have implied. Instead, this is a product of France's policy of recognising what happened during WWI as a genocide. I believe the most important part of your question is why has France been the most assertive when it comes to recognition of the Armenian genocide. This comes ...


11

Short answer: points 4-6 were unreasonable to the point of being unacceptable, because they gave Vienna so much power over Serbia that it amounted to a forfeiture of Serbian independence. This isn't unique to the time period or Serbia. Countries generally are not happy to subjugate themselves to a hated enemy. Whether they could afford to resist is another ...


9

Yes. The Latin League was founded in 7th century B.C. by a set of Italian states. The capital city was Alba Longa. Delian League was founded in 5th century BC Peloponnesian League was formed between 6 and 4th centuries BC League of Corinth was formed during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC Achaean League existed between 280 BC and 146 BC In central, barbarian, ...


7

Mers-el-Kebir was indeed a tragic episode in the history of Anglo-French relations. And it wasn't the only incident of its kind (though it was by far the costliest in lives). A number of engagements made up "Operation Catapult". British sailors used force to seize various French ships, some of them, like the giant submarine Surcouf already in British ports. ...


7

Short Answer The Kidnapper is the United States/Roosevelt. The Hooligan is Britain/Churchill. The Bully was the Soviet Union/Stalin. For reference, this is the original passage from Chiang's diary: 聯合國中之四國,我為最弱,甚以弱者遇拐子、流氓與土霸為可危,也識知:人非自強,任何人亦不能為助。而國家之不求自強,則無論為敵為友,皆一汝為俎上之肉,可不戒懼? Of the four members of the United Nations, we are the weakest; it is ...


7

Globalization as a concept includes the notion of interchange of ideas, and in that respect the obvious concrete examples come from the world of global telecommunications, telegraphy would be an early example, the internet a current one. That said, every global (or near global) infrastructure you can think of could be considered a concrete example of ...


7

As with the case of France, Turkey's objective is not to have worse relations with Israel. Instead the worsening of relations between Turkey and Israel is a product of internal issues on both sides. Turkey and Israel do have a long history of military cooperation and coordination. Furthermore, Turkey has bought military equipment from Israel (tanks and ...


6

The earliest political body designed to harness the power of multiple independent sovereign states for trade and military purposes we have a historical record for appears to be the Awussa League. The Assuwa League was an alliance of city-states and kingdoms formed to oppose Hittite influence in Anatolia, dating to just before the 14th century BCE.


6

Anything that corresponds to the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale. See the Oxford dictionary definition.


6

Funny story, that. It all starts with the Suez Canal. Shipping things between the far east and Europe the long way around Africa was certainly doable, but very very time-consuming and expensive. Once built, the canal was half owned by the French and half owned by Egypt. However, Egypt's finances were your typical third world despotic mess, so in 1875 the ...


6

NATO used force, or the threat of force, to remove Kosovo from Serbia. The UN charter, Article 2, paragraph 4: All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United ...


5

Even today I doubt that there is such a thing like a "European culture". The cultural differences between different countries are huge. I'm not just talking about the difference between a Nordic country and a Mediterranean country, even neighboring countries like Belgium (where I'm from) and Germany are quite different, culturally. Much has to do with ...


5

Actually, England had no part in the building of the Suez canal. That was all France. Here's what happened: Napoleon took his troops on a little excursion through Egypt at the turn of the 19th century. This got a lot of Frenchmen associating the country with romance and adventure. At the time, France had probably the best Civil Engineering schooling ...


5

Forever? Every civilization makes it a priority to know who is who and keep out the unwanted people. In the Book of Judges an incident is described from 3000 years ago whereby a shibboleth is used to identify aliens. According to the Wikipedia entry on identity documents, the passports of King Henry V (15th century) were the first such documents, but various ...


4

From a geopolitical standpoint I would say that the United Nations, the Bretton Woods Institutions (World Bank and International Monetary Fund), and the World Trade Organization are the clearest examples of globalization. These organizations are the vehicles through which the countries of the world interact with each other, exchange ideas, handle problems ...


4

Russia and Japan had one war, and several smaller scale conflicts, in the 50 years between 1895-1945. They are NOT natural enemies. Their emnity arose out of the power vacuum created by the collapse of China in the lat 19th, early 20th century. This caused them to both covet Manchuria, for two different reasons. Russia wanted a warm water port on the ...


4

Rather than saying they had X number of wars, it would probably be more accurate to say that the two countries had a continuous ongoing conflict from 1895 until 1947, with occassional brief breaks for recuperation and retooling. In fact, the territorial disputes didn't even really end there, but the fighting did due to the Cold War. Since then I think just ...


4

The issue with any treaty provision is what will you do if the side does violate it. Ideally, you would instantly spring to war. However, will your allies and your own people support this? Hitler was able to spin the 100000 man army and the limits on equipment into a straitjacket that wouldn't even let them defend themselves against their smallest ...


4

The Amarna letters and other associated documents indicate the existence of permanent embassies in Egypt in the 14th century BC. As a matter of practicality it has always been the practice to demand hostages among states in tension. For example, one king will send his son to be a hostage in the court of the other king. This son acts as a sort of an embassy. ...


4

The US very often offers aid, in cases of disaster as mentioned by Oldcat, but also to countries that are having economic or security issues. As pointed out by Semaphore the answer to the question is: No, not all countries that exist/ed at the same time as the US have been offered aid to I also think it's important to understand what exactly is "aid" ...


4

The ideas behind the EEZ are put forward quite well in this proclamation by President Harry S Truman in 1947 Formally: Proclamation 2667 - Policy of the United States With Respect to the Natural Resources of the Subsoil and Sea Bed of the Continental Shelf "Having concern for the urgency of conserving and prudently utilizing its natural resources, the ...


4

“Europe” and “Asia” as distinct cultural units are defined by Herodotus almost at the beginning of his histories.(1.4.4: τὴν γὰρ Ἀσίην καὶ τὰ ἐνοικέοντα ἔθνεα βάρβαρα οἰκηιεῦνται οἱ Πέρσαι, τὴν δὲ Εὐρώπην καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικόν ἥγηνται κεχωρίσθαι. ) Herodotus lived in the 5th century BC.


4

I think it is important to understand the environment in the rest of Europe at that time. Spain had a civil war 1936-1939 (some considering that it was a test for WW2) Italy was under control of fascism. But lets talk about more "important" countries, in England, the primer minister at the time was more inclined to negotiate rather than to attack, the ...


3

The most important bit of background information here is that Britain spent that period dedicated to thwarting France (particularly its continental ambitions). This was the basic diplomatic split in western politics. In the USA, the Democratic Party tended to be very suspicous of England (for various reasons, the most practical of which was the clash of ...


3

Read about the Tragedy of the Commons. It is a well understood economic observation that any resource left unmanaged will tend to be over exploited, as it is in the individual self-interest to do so. When combined with the basic observation, in life as well as child-rearing, that one should never make idle threats, the question you ask really should be ...


3

I think you are being misdirected by the theatre of politics. It works like this. Somebody does something "against" the leader. The underlings and sycophants make a noise about it, as they must. The leader takes it in their stride, rises above and appears more statesman-like. So, from my recollection, the answer is that it had a positive effect on ...


3

In 1882, Ahmed Urabi, an Egyptian general, led a rebellion against the Egyptian Khedive, a viceroy to the Ottoman Empire, as at the time Egypt was an Ottoman vassal. The British had strong interests in Egypt, due to among many other things, the Suez Canal, and so, supported the Khedive. At about this time, the Khedive asked the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire ...


3

As @T.E.D. suggests this kind of things is better understood from the inside. so here is how I see it from Paris. President Sarkozy suddenly felt a hurry to push a so called "Armenian Genocide" law just before the last presidential election in order to rally the Armenian community which is quite influential in the French microcosm. That didn't help him to ...


3

The US Articles of Confederation may be an example. Each colony/state were considered sovereign under it while they ceded some powers, such as common defense, to the federal Congress. Since the colonies were never recognized by other powers as separate nations but as part of the US, it may not fit your question though. There have been a number of ...


3

The wording of the question betrays the bias of hindsight. The idea that Hitler could have been brought to heel by decisive collective action in the mid-1930s has tremendous appeal now. But at the time rigidly upholding the terms of an unworkable 20-year-old treaty would have seemed to most people to invite disaster not avert it. Breaching the treaty It ...



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