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24

Everyone learnt from the Korean War and wished to avoid a repeat of a bloody direct Chinese-American fighting. At the onset of the escalated American involvement in 1965, Beijing made it clear where the Chinese line in the sand is: [I]f the Americans went beyond the bombing of the North and used ground forces to invade North Vietnam, China would have to ...


13

Yes. Tsar Nicholas II issued a manifesto on 19 July (i.e. 1 August, New Style) which is considered Russia's declaration of war against Germany. Made in response to the German notice, it was read to a crowd from the balcony of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg at 3 p.m. the next day. I can't locate the original text, but here's a translated excerpt: ...


10

First of all, Carthage did not fall in the First or Second Punic Wars. The Carthaginians were defeated twice, and compelled to surrender to particularly harsh terms the second time, but the City of Carthage itself was not conquered. Keep in mind that Carthage was not some run of the mill city-state, but rather the capital of a far flung maritime empire. ...


8

Related: It's worth noting the little (apparently) known fact that the Chinese and Vietnamese held Vietnam Warr part 3* between themselves after the end of part 2 with substantial losses on both sides. (*Part 1 - with France, part 2 with USA). Significant disgreements exist to the present and various "incidents" involving deaths on both sides (mainly ...


6

Germany had declared war on Russia on 1 August, in response to Russian mobilisation; Austria followed on 6 August. (timeline; text). There was presumably no need for Russia to make their own declaration after this point.


5

In Poland since 1918, it's been the case that the citizenship could only be earned by descendants of Polish citizens. However, a big one-time change – which turned "almost everyone" into a citizen – came through the Polish Citizenship Act of 1920, Article 2 and 2a. On January 20th, 1920, everyone became a Polish citizen who was a resident on the new, ...


2

Soviet-Chinese relations were at the lowest point at the time of Vietnam war. Even if Vietnam government wanted to get full support from two sides, they would have to choose. And for many years since then Soviet Union and Vietnam were allies not only against US but against China too. Strong Vietnam was the reason of China's failure in Cambodia ...


2

Actually China did assist Vietnam. China didn't just send a few thousand troops to repair bases. China actually sent hundreds of thousands of soldiers to help the north Vietnamese air defence. The Americans believed they could bomb north Vietnam into submission without sending ground troops into the north. So the Chinese troops were actively fighting to ...



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