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49

First of all, as the definition you cited states, The term empire does not have a precise definition. The Aztec Empire was large by the standards of their time in their part of the world. It dominated the Valley of Mexico and was a major power in Mesoamerica generally. Land size is not really a indicator of imperial status per se, but in context, the ...


30

The Korean War and the Vietnam War are fundamentally very different conflicts. With the former, South Korea was unambiguously invaded by North Korea in an explicit war of conquest. Due to lucky political circumstances, United Nations was able to sanction a military operation to defend South Korea. The Security Council, Having determined that the ...


27

Everyone learnt from the Korean War and wished to avoid a repeat of a bloody direct Chinese-American fighting. At the onset of the escalated American involvement in 1965, Beijing made it clear where the Chinese line in the sand is: [I]f the Americans went beyond the bombing of the North and used ground forces to invade North Vietnam, China would have to ...


17

I have read your question as "Has a country ever won a war, and still "lost" territory, and if so, why?" One example was the Austro-Sardinian War, otherwise known as the Second War of Italian Independence. Sardinia (Piedmont) won the war. She did so with the help of France, under Napoleon III. She had to cede her holdings of Savoy and Nice to France to ...


16

Some examples from WW2: Poland was on the winning side but lost the eastern half of the country to the USSR. Yes they got compensated by German territories, but we could have some fun debating the relevance of that. Britain came out a winner but it's impoverishment was a significant factor leading to withdrawal from the Empire.


15

Yes. Tsar Nicholas II issued a manifesto on 19 July (i.e. 1 August, New Style) which is considered Russia's declaration of war against Germany. Made in response to the German notice, it was read to a crowd from the balcony of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg at 3 p.m. the next day. I can't locate the original text, but here's a translated excerpt: ...


13

By naming Russian mobilisation as the initial aggression. One needs to look no further than the German declaration of war itself. That document succinctly laid out Berlin's position that the Russian mobilisation was an existential threat as well as an act of aggression towards Germany. Presenting Germany as a peaceful mediator, it claims that: [Russia]...


13

Let me add a few details to Semaphore's answer. One is that the Vietnam war actually ended with the North Vietnam invasion of South Vietnam. This happened soon after the US withdrawal, and in violation of the peace treaty. The UN Security Council could not react properly because the Soviets had the right of veto in it. (As it could not react in 2014 on the ...


12

Such scenario is not uncommon during the decolonization-related wars of the 20th century. The colonial power is often able to defeat the other side militarily, but for political or other reasons had to withdraw. Some examples: Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949), was considered to be a Dutch military victory, since Dutch military forces were able to ...


11

In Poland since 1918, it's been the case that the citizenship could only be earned by descendants of Polish citizens. However, a big one-time change – which turned "almost everyone" into a citizen – came through the Polish Citizenship Act of 1920, Article 2 and 2a. On January 20th, 1920, everyone became a Polish citizen who was a resident on the new, ...


10

First of all, Carthage did not fall in the First or Second Punic Wars. The Carthaginians were defeated twice, and compelled to surrender to particularly harsh terms the second time, but the City of Carthage itself was not conquered. Keep in mind that Carthage was not some run of the mill city-state, but rather the capital of a far flung maritime empire. ...


9

Germany had declared war on Russia on 1 August, in response to Russian mobilisation; Austria followed on 6 August. (timeline; text). There was presumably no need for Russia to make their own declaration after this point.


9

Germans and British combatants frequently visited Ireland which was neutral in WWII. German submarine crews would frequent pubs in Dublin as did RAF pilots and crews of British Navy vessels. Sometimes there would be knowing encounters of Germans and British; sometimes unknowing encounters; sometimes just vague suspicions that the bunch of square-heads ...


8

Jaffa, which has an Arab population of about 70,000, is entirely Arab except for two Jewish quarters. - United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. Report to the General Assembly. 1947. Jaffa was a predominantly Arab city with a large Arab majority. Carving Jaffa out as an Arab enclave was a land-efficient way of strengthening the proportion of ...


8

Related: It's worth noting the little (apparently) known fact that the Chinese and Vietnamese held Vietnam Warr part 3* between themselves after the end of part 2 with substantial losses on both sides. (*Part 1 - with France, part 2 with USA). Significant disgreements exist to the present and various "incidents" involving deaths on both sides (mainly ...


7

This is a question I've never heard asked about the English Civil War (+1 for thoughtfulness and creativity!), but perhaps for the reason that it's not relevant to the conflict. The overwhelming present-day historical consensus holds that the tensions and causes of eventual warfare between Charles I, Parliament, and the realms over which they ruled were ...


7

Despite being outnumbered and outgunned Finland managed to repel a Soviet invasion in the Winter War of 1939-40 although they lost 11% of their land area.


7

It's pertinent to note that several nations other than the U.S. participated in combat on the side of South Vietnam, with the largest contributions coming from South Korea, Thailand, and Australia. Many others gave civilian or military aid. South Korea deployed 50,000 soldiers over the course of the war, which is more than all the countries in the Korean War ...


5

From additional research I have clarified this answer to better reflect the documentation from Spanish Historians who have provided much more detailed commentary and record of the events of the Grenadian War. Your initial question asks if the Grenadian people believed that the Spanish would be faithful to the terms of the surrender. The Spanish Wikipedia ...


5

American attitudes toward China were best expressed in the Open Door Policy. This policy was, in fact, aimed at "rolling back" some of the special privileges others were trying to "rent." American didn't want to "rent" parts of China because she didn't want other countries to "rent" (and thereby divide) China into 5-10 "special" regions. America was on its ...


5

It can be hard to draw the lines between a corporation (or similar entity) which is hired to use force on behalf of a nation state and a corporation that is allowed to use force by a nation state. Consider the Hanseatic League in medieval times. They raised forces and fought wars. Companies which ruled towns or towns ruled by their merchant class?


4

The short answer is that, if Germany sat and waited while Russia mobilized, the Germans believed they would be crushed between France and Russia. Imperial Russia was considered to be a powerful nation because they could put so many men in the field. Russia's inability to properly equip or supply them was not properly understood. The German war plan was to ...


4

As "empires" go, the Aztec "empire" is pretty small. It ranks 212th among large empires, with 220,000 square miles. That's about the size of two large European countries, say Germany and France, or Germany and Poland. It was also larger than any other civilization in the Americas (pre Columbus), except for the Incas. An Emperor may be considered a "king of ...


4

This French and British fleets were government-sponsored fleets containing official Navy ships. Their expeditions to China were conducted as part of official government policy with expansionist motives. The large majority of American ships involved in the China trade were private merchantmen, not Navy warships. The Americans had a few isolated warships in ...


3

I think it is called an empire by the following criterion: it is a multi-ethnic state where one ethnic group (or nation) rules over the other, usually conquered, ethnic groups. (This applies to the Russian, British, Osman, Austro-Hungarian, Roman, Persian, Mongol, Carolingian and many other empires. The size is secondary. This definition fits the Aztec ...


3

In recent years, states (countries? Nations?) have had a monopoly on the use of force and violence to maintain power. States only recently (1800's) became the prime segment of governance, and states didn't truly have a monopoly on the use of force until the post WWII order. Prior to this, nearly every segment of the population had the ability to use force ...


2

Would British Empire loosing most of its colonies within 10 years after winning WWII count? Although the loss was not immediate, it was triggered by the loss of geopolitical positions due to expenses of WWII and rise of Britain's WWII allies.


2

India had won some territory in the 1971 Indo-Pakistani war, which was a victory for India and newly independent Bangladesh. However, India ceded the territory in the 1972 Simla agreement as a gesture of goodwill.


2

The Spanish Muslims had "some" reason to expect that the Spanish would observe their rights. The "Reconquista" had been going on for two or three centuries, and the Spanish had (earlier) more or less observed treaty terms in the newly reconquered territories. This "observance" had become less as time went by. Three things made the fifteenth century version ...


2

These are previously mentioned Russian manifestos. Against Germany (02.08.1914): Translation: By the Grace of God, We, Nicholas the Second, the Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia, the King of Poland, the Grand Duke of Finland, etc. etc. etc. Proclaim to all Our loyals: Abiding by her historical testaments, Russia, unified by faith and ...



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