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Despite common misconception, both Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula were ceded to the United Kingdom in perpetuity, via the Treaty of Nanking and the Convention of Peking, respectively. London was under no legal obligation to return them to China. However, most of the Crown Colony of Hong Kong actually consists of the New Territories. That was ...


11

Short answer: points 4-6 were unreasonable to the point of being unacceptable, because they gave Vienna so much power over Serbia that it amounted to a forfeiture of Serbian independence. This isn't unique to the time period or Serbia. Countries generally are not happy to subjugate themselves to a hated enemy. Whether they could afford to resist is another ...


10

Gibraltar was defensible, but Hong Kong was not. In the 1990s, the distance from the UK would have made Hong Hong impossible to defend. Also, Hong Kong is primarily occupied by Chinese, unlike Gibraltar, which is occupied by UK citizens, many of whom are soldiers. Gibraltar is a fortress, and it is relatively close to the UK and hence easily suppliable. ...


7

Short Answer The Kidnapper is the United States/Roosevelt. The Hooligan is Britain/Churchill. The Bully was the Soviet Union/Stalin. For reference, this is the original passage from Chiang's diary: 聯合國中之四國,我為最弱,甚以弱者遇拐子、流氓與土霸為可危,也識知:人非自強,任何人亦不能為助。而國家之不求自強,則無論為敵為友,皆一汝為俎上之肉,可不戒懼? Of the four members of the United Nations, we are the weakest; it is ...


6

NATO used force, or the threat of force, to remove Kosovo from Serbia. The UN charter, Article 2, paragraph 4: All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United ...


5

Forever? Every civilization makes it a priority to know who is who and keep out the unwanted people. In the Book of Judges an incident is described from 3000 years ago whereby a shibboleth is used to identify aliens. According to the Wikipedia entry on identity documents, the passports of King Henry V (15th century) were the first such documents, but various ...


5

Even today I doubt that there is such a thing like a "European culture". The cultural differences between different countries are huge. I'm not just talking about the difference between a Nordic country and a Mediterranean country, even neighboring countries like Belgium (where I'm from) and Germany are quite different, culturally. Much has to do with ...


4

“Europe” and “Asia” as distinct cultural units are defined by Herodotus almost at the beginning of his histories.(1.4.4: τὴν γὰρ Ἀσίην καὶ τὰ ἐνοικέοντα ἔθνεα βάρβαρα οἰκηιεῦνται οἱ Πέρσαι, τὴν δὲ Εὐρώπην καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικόν ἥγηνται κεχωρίσθαι. ) Herodotus lived in the 5th century BC.


4

I think it is important to understand the environment in the rest of Europe at that time. Spain had a civil war 1936-1939 (some considering that it was a test for WW2) Italy was under control of fascism. But lets talk about more "important" countries, in England, the primer minister at the time was more inclined to negotiate rather than to attack, the ...


4

The issue with any treaty provision is what will you do if the side does violate it. Ideally, you would instantly spring to war. However, will your allies and your own people support this? Hitler was able to spin the 100000 man army and the limits on equipment into a straitjacket that wouldn't even let them defend themselves against their smallest ...


4

The Amarna letters and other associated documents indicate the existence of permanent embassies in Egypt in the 14th century BC. As a matter of practicality it has always been the practice to demand hostages among states in tension. For example, one king will send his son to be a hostage in the court of the other king. This son acts as a sort of an embassy. ...


4

The US very often offers aid, in cases of disaster as mentioned by Oldcat, but also to countries that are having economic or security issues. As pointed out by Semaphore the answer to the question is: No, not all countries that exist/ed at the same time as the US have been offered aid to I also think it's important to understand what exactly is "aid" ...


3

Austria had annexed Bosnia-Hercegovina in 1908, and was looking to swallow Serbia next. It is in this context that the ultimatum be understood. The Austrian ultimatum not only demanded that Serbia allow her to prosecute the perpetrators of the assassination, but help Austria find and punish officials that may have helped them. It went much further by asking ...


3

There really is a whole list of things that were done to prevent WW3. So I would have to consider this question to be a bit of a laundry list question. However, one of the major things that the US did to prevent WWII is to not make the same mistake that it made after the end of WWI. It did not beat the losing side into the ground. In fact, the allied nations ...


3

A French politician of Germanic-Luxembourgish background called Robert Schuman created the European Coal and Steel Community. This marked the start of European integration, which would in a few decades lead to the European Union. Ultimately, through fostering close economic ties, a true reconciliation between Germany and France was able to overcame the ...


3

The wording of the question betrays the bias of hindsight. The idea that Hitler could have been brought to heel by decisive collective action in the mid-1930s has tremendous appeal now. But at the time rigidly upholding the terms of an unworkable 20-year-old treaty would have seemed to most people to invite disaster not avert it. Breaching the treaty It ...


3

I think you are being misdirected by the theatre of politics. It works like this. Somebody does something "against" the leader. The underlings and sycophants make a noise about it, as they must. The leader takes it in their stride, rises above and appears more statesman-like. So, from my recollection, the answer is that it had a positive effect on ...


2

To be pedantic, and to repeat some of what's already been said in comments ... there isn't, in fact, absolute uniformity in the way those national symbols have been constituted around the world. The Gaddafi-era Libyan flag was something of a non-flag, an idiosyncratic statement. Arguably the Saudi flag is as much a banner as a flag. The Nepali flag, as you ...


2

The main reason the demands were unreasonable is that A-H wanted to force the issue with Serbia in order to end the troubles with their disaffected minorities in the neighboring districts. Getting an 'attaboy' support blank check from Germany helped stoke the fire. Serbia actually accepted virtually all the unreasonable demands, if not all of them. But ...


1

The most significant impact of this first contact is arguably the extensive knowledge of new products and technologies in distant nations, which would pave the way for much more significant cultural exchanges in the future, notably the development of the silk road and Buddhism. After Zhang Qian's embassies in Central Asia lead to increased trade between ...


1

I think it goes throughout history, and I'm inclined to include the examples that you've excluded that is European Christiandom and the Roman Empire. They're notions of continental unity on the ecclesiastical and political level. Periodically there had been revivals of the Roman political project, for example by Charlemagne. The roots of European culture is ...


1

Concentrating on the Rhineland as a major breach of the treaty, Britain and France had 3 choices. 1) War. This was out. A lot of blame has been heaped upon the politicians for that, but the populations of these countries, as well as their colonies and allies, were firmly opposed. 2) economic blockade. In modern times countries are relatively good at ...



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