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You could find a little example of Soviet Union directly now in North Korea. As you can see, it is totalitarian government that exactly a micro-copy of Soviet Union. Why does traveling denied for North Korea's citizen? Because there is War. Great Cold War with 80+ years of history. The same picture was in Soviet Union. Evil capitalist with CIA ( ...


3

How did other countries take/recognise this title (the largest/most important, like Spain, Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Poland/Lithuania, the Pope, Ottoman Empire maybe)? Was it just taken "it's just a children's play, let the English perform it, if it's fun for them"? All the other monarchs did the same thing. The kings of France and Spain both ...


6

This is not directly answering your question, but you might consider the German partition during the Cold War. This is illustrative because the Germans initially had open borders. The GDR (East Germany) suffered a massive population and brain drain in the 50s and early 60s, with 3.5 million East Germans coming to the FRG (West Germany). The Communist ...


3

Regarding question 2, it should be noted that before a voyage to another country a Soviet citizen had to undergo a scrutiny by local Party organs, ostensibly to ensure his or her strict moral values. Some KGB checks were surely performed as well, but those were hidden. Questions by Party (Komsomol for younger people, I guess) were, on the contrary, open, and ...


30

The answer to 1, 2 is very simple. Soviet Union represented itself as a "communist paradise." The country where life was better than in capitalist countries. This was the main justification of communist power and social order. People traveling abroad could immediately see that this was not the case. When this became evident to sufficient number of people, ...


10

As answered in comments, the authorities were afraid of their populations defecting en masse (as indeed happened when the borders were thrown open in the GDR and Hungary in the early 1990s, so their fears weren't unfounded) Yes, to a degree. Travel wasn't as easy by far as it was in the west, but it was possible. Yes, some. But those were mostly related to ...


1

A lot has to do with the successor states that were spawned by the respective countries. Rome spawned a number of successor states in western Europe (albeit a millennium later) that created the printing press, and one of the offshoots of these western European states was America, which created the Internet. The Sumerians may have been among the first to ...


8

I conjecture that there is one more reason. The historians you mention belong to the "Western European/North American" culture. It is a direct descendant of the Roman empire (in the cultural sense). Perhaps if you read Persian historians you obtain a different picture. And I am sure that if you read Chinese historians, you will learn a very different ...


11

As the commenters have stated, there are several reasons "Persia" isn't one empire, but a succession of empires controlling the same area, more or less in the period. Rome under the Republic and Empire was a single continuous government. The various Persian governments tended to get knocked around in head to head competition with Mediterranean powers. ...


3

According to The Guardian, "passports were not generally required for international travel until the first world war". Wikipedia concurs This matches accounts I have read of people travelling from London to Moscow without travel documents. During the First World war, they became necessary, and they never stopped being needed.


1

As for passports, AFAIK, they were introduced first in Russia by Michael I, according to ideas of an early socialist Charles Fourier. Absolute majority (peasants) had no passport and could not travel out of the district. Many people had inner passports, that allowed to travel along the whole empire. And some people got passports that could have leave visa ...


8

France was given a lenient peace because of its importance in the European balance of power, and the fear that punishing France too much would end up giving too much power to some other European country. This was the feeling after the removal of Napoleon, who was seen as the problem, not "France." For instance, England felt that France could be a useful ...



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