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24

The name comes from the Alemanni, a Germanic tribe. Germany is known by a variety of names throughout the world, you can find a comprehensive list on Wikipedia: Names of Germany. See also: Is there a reason why Germany (Deutschland) is called so many different things in other European languages? (German Language Stack Exchange)


22

Because this question has been edited many times I have to clarify that I am answering the version that asks: What caused the Iranian 1979 revolution to become Islamic? Short Answer (more suited for causal conversations in bars): It was easier to portray the Shah as anti Islamic ruler in league with the Western powers bent on destroying Islam in an Islamic ...


20

This seemed to have come from Persia's freedom from the Qajars and some nationalism on the part of Germany during WWII influencing the Shah's decisions. So it was originally changed in 1935 and not 1979, unless you are only referring to the Islamic Republic addition, which was done at the Ayatollah's will, more than likely. The name of the country in ...


19

Khomeini was in France because he had been expelled from Iran and then Iraq, and his aides had advised him to go to Europe, and because France granted him political asylum. He was at the time an aged and relatively obscure religious figure, a target of political persecution who had not been to his home country in well over a decade. They probably saw him as ...


12

There are only approximately 20,000 Zoroastrians in Iran, which is about 0.026% of the total population. I would not say Zoroastrianism is strong in Iran in terms of the total population. The only way Zoroastrianism can be said to be strong in Iran is because it has the second-largest Zoroastrian population after India (~69,000). See List of countries by ...


12

Comparing just to the Constitution of the Netherlands, that of Belgium was for a Unitary State with no substantial body of Common Law and tradition, while that of The Netherlands was for a Federal State, with a substantial body of Common Law and Tradition. Further part of the motive for the separation of Belgium from Netherlands in 1831 had been a feeling ...


11

The Invasion of Iran was carried out by British and Commonwealth forces in the south, and Soviet forces in the north. The Shah of Iran was forced to abdicate, and the new Iranian government under his son was obliged to adopt a pro-Allied stance. For the remainder of the war, Iran was occupied by Soviets in the north and British forces in the south. The ...


11

There is a Wikipedia article on the topic, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Germany Because of Germany's geographic position in the centre of Europe, as well as its long history as a non-united region of distinct tribes and states, there are many widely varying names of Germany in different languages, perhaps more so than for any other European ...


11

There were plenty of European revolutions which led to terrible casualties and not much democracy, both before and after the French revolution. The Hussite wars. The English revolution of 1688. The German revolutions of 1848/49. The Paris commune of 1870. The revolutionaries simply tried again, or they faded away when conditions changed.


10

According to Wikipedia it was the Alvids who started it: They were descendants of the second Shi'a Imam (Imam Hasan ibn Ali) and brought Islam to the south Caspian Sea region of Iran. Their reign was ended when they were defeated by the Samanid empire in 928 AD. According to this Wikipedia link Safavids were the ones who imposed it: Although ...


10

One of the recurring themes in history I find fascinating is the spread of sects. You'll often find that when a group wants to separate itself from a foreign power structure, it will embrace a fashionable herecy. For this reason, the old views generally are kept toward the religous culture's central seat of secular power, and the new ones become popular ...


8

Iran was never a British colony. British actions may have inadvertently aided the Islamization of Iran, though the most critical time period appears to me to be the Mossadegh government ('51-'53), not the Second World War or prior. Also, you say I am sure that the Islamization of today's Iran is the result of Great Britain's policy on Iran before the ...


8

There is a notion that superpowers have, well, super powers, and can bend history to their will. There is never a shortage of conspiracy theories involving foreign agents. The reality of course is that even great powers are constrained, and the idea that Carter's appearance in Iran sparked a revolution is at the very least too Carlylian for my taste. If ...


6

The two situations were completely different: in 1943 Iran was largely occupied by the Allies (British and Russian) who thus had the final say in everything. Whereas in 1979 the Shah was toppled by a genuine revolution; at that stage there was nothing the US could have done for him. Perhaps if he had abdicated himself a few years before 1979 in favour of, ...


6

Flu is caused by a virus. A virus is too small for an optical microscope. The 1918 flu pandemic was neither caused nor spread by humans intentionally (although some nations uses quarantine to good effect). Humans still have no effective flu treatment. Blaming the British for Iranian deaths from the pandemic is preposterous. The British did not quarantine ...


6

The Iranian Revolution was in 1979. Before this time, the US and Iran were close friends when the nation was run by the Shah. The Vietnam War ended in 1975. I assume that Iran supported the US in Vietnam, because the governments were still very close. The modern Iranian government did not like Sadaam Hussien. The Iran-Iraq War of 1980-1988 was likely fresh ...


5

It is not true. The name Iran is old enough and comes from Ayran which means the land of Aryans but Reza Shah suspected westerners' motives in using the name Persia instead of Iran and tried to change the name to Iran again. Reza Shah had extreme nationalist ideas, and the Nazi regime cheated him and abused these feelings in the second world war. Westerners ...


4

Like virtually every other country, Iran values having a culture that is not simply defined by its predominant religion. Iran, therefore, has a close attachment to its pre-Islamic (or better, non-Islamic) civilisation. Besides being a source of pride in its own right, this heritage also serves to differentiate the country and people from its surrounding ...


4

I haven't found a lot of numbers specifically for British Persia, but it is amost certianly the case that far more subjects of that area died from the Spanish Flu (50-100 million killed world-wide) rather than WWI (about 16 million killed, mostly in Europe and Africa). Even among the heaviest combatants, the the numbers were close (eg: UK 1 mil for war, 250K ...


4

The 1964 speech was arguably a turning point in Khomeini's campaign against the Shah. The speech was against the Shah's giving U.S. servicemen "extraterritorial" privileges, the right to be tried for crimes in Iran in American, rather than Irani courts. It cut pretty close to home and upset the Shah. The Shah didn't try to kill him, but did arrest and ...


4

Wilayat al Faqih is traditionally not a position, but a principle, or theory. The principle says that an Islamic Jurist as a guardian of people. There has been several different views on what this means, and if the Islamic Jurist is a guardian in all things, including secular, or only a guardian in religious matters. Ruhollah Khomeini expanded on this ...


4

There are many Geo political reasons for that. Most of the other names are kept by other countries. India is called India (from Indus) because British kept it. Its called Hindustan (Land of Hindus) because Arabs kept it. Germans call their country Deutschland but internationally it is called as Germany. It is the same as we have synonyms in any language for ...


4

I will answer the part of your question about these four specific names. The Persian names for Holland and Germany are recent borrowings from French. Lehestān is borrowed from Turkish and derives from the name of the Lendians, a Slavic tribe who once lived in what is now Poland. Hend is an Arabicised form of Middle Persian hindūg, Old Persian hindū-, ...


4

Historically, every country had many different names - what they called themselves, and what others called them. Conquerors came and said "This is now SomethingLand" while the people who lived there were already calling it "OurIsland" in their language or "LandOfTrees" in their language or whatever. [There is a claim that "Canada" comes from an Iroquoian ...


3

The Governor of the Jurisprudence is the Supreme Religious Leader of Iran. He is more powerful than the President, and is to the President, what a medieval Pope was to a medieval king. This role was created in Iran as a result of the 1979 revolution against the Shah. No other Islamic country ever had such a violently anti-secularist revolution or the ...


3

There was indeed fighting in what is today Iran during WWI. It is hard to say exactly how many died in that fighting, most sources just list casualties for the Ottoman Empire as a whole, which is below 3 million, and that includes around half a million war dead and 1 to 1.5 million that died in the Armenian genocide. (sources) But I can't find any sources ...


3

The U.S. and Iran were originally allies when the shah they supported was in power. the Iran hostage crisis and subsequent revolution changed this by removing the shah from power and installing the Ayatollah as the new leader of Iran who was fiercely anti American. Iraq was supported by the Soviets, however the Iran-Iraq War was taking place during the ...


3

As per T.E.D's suggestion, to summarize the detailed answer I have posted already, following are main points: Safavids main target was the Sunni Muslim community of Iran which was the majority of Iranian population at inception of Safavid Empire. They considered them possible fifth column since main rivals of Safavids were Sunni Ottomans who were expanding ...


3

To add to @Yannis Rizos's post, what has come down to us as the Germanic tribal name Alemanni is actually the Latin name for what that tribe called itself. The tribe called itself the High Germanic equivalent of the modern German "alle männer", or "all men"/"all mankind", because they themselves were all the people they usually referred to. The Romans ...


3

AFAIK no country supplied troops in anything approaching an official capacity. Of course that doesn't mean they weren't there, but if they were there it would not be something the countries in question would want to be known so it's highly unlikely you're going to find official sources to corroborate any claims. More likely is that some international ...



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