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12

Ireland was not a threat to Rome By the time the Romans had reached Britain, their empire covered most of western Europe and their resources were becoming stretched. For most of the time they spent in Britain, they were more concerned with holding on to what they had rather than expanding further. Caesar invaded Britain in BCs 55 & 54 to see what was ...


11

In Common Sense, Thomas Paine wrote, "there is something very absurd in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island." The United States, Canada, and Australia (New Zealand to a lesser extent), were all countries of continental size, far away from England. As such, they naturally wanted to have their own destinies. Scotland, Wales, and ...


10

Simple answer - it's complicated! The world was very different in 1776 than it was in 1867 or 1900. The US war of independance followed the movement/ideas that led to the French revolution and was a real political/philosophical difference in how you should run a country. It was also concentrated in a few large cities with a large established political ...


10

The problem started with the "flight of the Earls" in 1607. After losing a war to England, the Catholic Ulster nobles Hugh O'Donnell, Hugh O'Neil, and others, fled Ireland for Europe. Meanwhile, England brought in Protestant "settlers" from Scotland to "pacify" Ulster. Thus, the formerly most rebellious province of Ireland became the most pro British. These ...


10

World War I is the short answer. Conscription efforts incensed large volumes of the Irish population and the massive casualties sustained as well as economic damage from fighting the war made it harder for the British to respond. I'm sure the 1918 flu didn't help matters any.


9

This is kind of a wide-ranging question. I'll do my best with it. The Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages consists of Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx. It appears to have differentiated in Ireland, the other branches existing due to conquest/immigration. In particular, Scottish Gaelic pretty much completely replaced the Pictish element in ...


9

In "Ptolemy's map of Ireland: a modern decoding,"* R. Darcy and William Flynn discuss Claudius Ptolemy's Geographia, a map (among many other things) mentioning what is believed to be Ireland, dating back to the early second century. Wiki says 140 AD but I could find no other source to corroborate that claim-- but logic suggests Ptolemy made Geographia in his ...


8

It was made illegal in Republican Ireland in 1937. Probably as a reaction to England broadening its laws on the subject.


8

Revolutions and uprisings tend to occur when youth population booms coincide with political or economic oppression. Ireland had a post-WWII baby boom like many Western countries and the 1970's was when enough of those people were in their twenties and unhappy with the situation they were born into. There is something unique about being between 15 and 30: ...


7

The róisín dubh, “little dark rose” or “little black rose,” is a symbol of Ireland, and has been used as a term of endearment for Ireland by Yeats and other poets. The 15th-century folk song “Róisín Dubh” is a love song in which Ireland is personified as a woman nicknamed Róisín Dubh, not unlike the way France is “Marianne” or the United States is ...


7

Ireland at the time was under British rule and Britain didn't adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752 so it would still officially be on the Julian calender and written records would use this. Since Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calender much sooner (it being introduced by pope Gregory) it's possible that Catholic church sources, especially those ...


7

Australia achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1986 ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_Act_1986 ). This occurred for a number of reasons: The UK's entry into the EEC and the exclusion of Australian exports from the UK market; Lingering resentment over the nature of the Dismissal; and, the fact that Australia had been a functionally ...


6

One of the factors of Irish independence in 1918 was U.S. President Wilson's Fourteen Points declaration, which included national self-determination. Used as a weapon against Germany and her allies in favor of central European peoples, it was also held against the British in favor of the Irish. Also, Britain had been weakened and sickened by the carnage of ...


6

A lot of the records were lost when the Dublin Public Record Office was blown up in 1922. But see http://www.gov.ie/en/essays/genealogy.html


6

What I'm seeing there for good attestations are the following: In Irish folklore, a Jack-o'-lantern appears to have been the same as what was called a will-o'-the-wisp in English folklore. In other words, ignited swamp gas visible at night, with lots of creative folklore built up around it. This is attested to as known folklore before we know of the term ...


6

At the risk of being pedantic, it is worth noting that some parts of the three counties traditionally included in the province of Ulster were transferred to the newly created Northern Ireland. However, the overall thrust of your question is correct - the traditional province of Ulster was divided by the Partition of Ireland. The shape of modern Northern ...


6

To invade Ireland, the Romans would first have needed to gain full control of either Wales or the Clyde estuary in Scotland, something they never succeeded in doing. The Romans very much wanted to conquer Ireland, because the Irish were a constant source of weapons and "rebellibus" support to the Scots and Welsh for attacks on Roman communities. During the ...


5

Scotland, Ireland and Wales along with England were all integral parts of the UK with full representation in the UK government. The four nations each benefited from the Union, for the most part anyway. And so with the exception of Ireland, there has never been a majority in any of the four in favour of independence. (that may change soon though.) Canada, ...


5

The principal reason that Protestants in Ireland opposed Home Rule was fear of extermination. In every uprising from the Irish Confederate Wars of 1641 to the 1798 rebellion there were numerous massacres of Protestants, and this bred a fear of rule by a Catholic Church dominated majority. After the establishment of the Free State there was a church/state ...


4

The Faddan More Psalter, dating from around 800 AD, found in a bog in Ireland, is lined with papyrus, leading to suggestions of links between the early Irish Christian Church and the Middle Eastern Coptic Church.


4

The Irish War of Independence is usually viewed at starting in 1916, with the Easter Rising. It was militarily a disaster, since they surrendered after a few days. The British government executed most of the the ring leaders, and turned them into martyrs, further helping the Irish Independence movement.


4

Actually the perception of these places being independent is much greater then the actual degree of separation. In Canada for instance they had to ask the queen for permission to dissolve the parliament. Fun fact: Canadians pay more per capita in taxes to the queen then the British do. Approximately 1.54 per capita vs the 1.32 that the English pay. Added ...


4

There are quite a few great sources on this topic. If by “how common”, you are implying that you are looking for hard, measurable and very-much-incomplete sample data (that you have to, of course, collate yourself), this is going to come from digitized historical court records like the Assize Courts that @Kobunite linked to, or from the proceedings of the ...


3

I'm trying to trace the birth certificate and I'm wondering about open questions such as: was she 'British' or 'Irish' or did she start 'British' and become 'Irish' automatically as a child? Remember that people can be both 'British' and 'Irish'. This might help track down her parents: Online, searchable, Irish censuses from 1901 and 1911 ...


3

The use of the word 'Celts', or the non Roman spelling, 'Kelts' (Romans had no K in their alphabet and so used C) is very confusing. The Britons were not Kelts, the Romans record that the Britons or Pretani called themselves the Britanni in the south and Brittoni in the north. On Pliny's map Britain is named, and much of Europe including Gaul, is named ...


3

The British were exhausted, and indeed bled dry by WWI. There was no will for yet another war of attrition, and also, Michael Collins was a master at guerilla war.


3

Astronomy was necessary for a calendar and calendar was necessary in all agricultural (neolithic) societies.


3

I found a very interesting source — a Ph.D. thesis by Mag. Lisa Ferris entitled “Irish Views on Old Austria and Austrian Views on the Irish Question, 1848 – 1918” devoted to the study of Irish in Austria. (It’s 775 pages long!) Here is a bit from page 19 (page 104 of the PDF document): The Taaffes, although almost completely integrated in Austria, never ...


3

Ireland isn't "only a few miles away". The shortest sea crossings from Wales are Fishguard–Rosslare and Holyhead–Dublin, which are both 60 miles (100km). Scotland is closer: Portpatrick–Bangor is about 20 miles (35km). South-west England is about twice as far from Ireland as Wales is. The Romans never had sustained control of Scotland ...


2

While providing links is not the best way of answering, Wikipedia's article on History of Astronomy could, in this case, be made-to-order. It reviews astronomical evolution, beliefs and practices right from Babylonians to modern astronomy sequentially and points to dedicated chronicles were relevant (ex- Egyptian, Indian, China etc.)



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