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11

The Norman kingdom in South Italy was certainly not a papal project. On the contrary, the popes tried to oppose the growing Norman power, by diplomatic and military means. Matters came to a particular head in 1053 in the battle of Civitate where the Normans defeated the Pope's army and took him prisoner. But eventually, when the papacy realized the Normans ...


8

According to Niall Ferguson in The Ascent of Money, they aren't balls, but coins. (I listened to the audiobook so I can't provide a page citation.) I'm somewhat suspicious because the blazon for the arms is "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France (viz. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis ...


7

The invasion of Italy was a huge psychological success for the Allies. It caused the Italian government to overthrow Mussolini in a coup d'etat and join the Allies. One (admittedly the weakest) of the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis had fallen before the Allies lost one of their major powers (Britain, the Soviet Union or China) to the Axis. From this point of view, ...


6

The League of the Sublime and Perfect Masters (Sublime Perfect Masters / Society of Perfect Sublime Masters) was a conspiratorial and revolutionary society, one of the Carbonari groups. It was created in 1818 by Filippo Buonarroti and it operated as a Masonic Lodge. Its headquarters were in Turin and its immediate goal was independence from Austria. Its ...


5

This drifts into a science Stack Exchange question somewhat, but consider the following: Until the advent of PVC pipes, stone aqueducts would have insulated the original (cool) temperature better than exposed metal piping. Unexposed piping would have been about equivalent to stone depending on ground temperature. If I recall correctly Roman aqueducts ...


4

Lucky Luciano, with other Mafias, provided great network of informants and intelligence to allies in Operation Underworld and Operation Husky- Invasion of Sicily during WWII. Operation Underworld (1942-1945): After the SS Normandie incident, Navy contacted Meyer Lansky, a known associate of Lucky Luciano, to deal with possible Mussolini supporters ...


4

Italy was (and is) an industrial and financial powerhouse - Mussolini was an ineffective wartime leader, but the resources his nation lent Hitler were essential to continuing the war. Removing Italy from the Axis sphere of influence was high on the list of Allied strategic goals - remember, the Allies' game plan was to deny Germany the means to make war in ...


3

What I think happened here is a case of gradual exaggeration. Benito Mussolini, who started the Italian Fascist party, was a socialist. But he got kicked out of the socialist party for supporting Italian involvement in WWI. Since he was no longer in the socialist party, he started his own organization, which eventually became the fascist party. Although ...


3

Italy was an ally of Germany, not an occupied country (except for the North in 1943-1945, which was not, technically, occupied). They made, e.g., Fiat_G.55 in Turin which saw action against the allied air forces. In general, Germany had the full use of the whole of French, Czech &c industries (except for those which were destroyed by allied bombing ...


3

I have found this passage in Runciman's A History of the Crusades: In 1040 six brothers [...] took control of the city of Melfi [...]. [...] Henry III supported them in order to gain control on the region that he contended with the Eastern Empire. The German Pope, that he had elected, did the same, as he was scorned that the Eastern Patriarch had ...


2

Well, turns out that there is a wikipedia article about this. It is not clear from the article how valuable in reality was the help the US got from Lucky Luciano. It certainly was valuable for him, procuring him an eventual release from prison...


2

The Basilica was built next to a bell tower built in 1414. Although the English Wikipedia article states that Alberti's restoration began in 1462, most of the other sources that I found state 1472. Also, Alberti sent a description and a drawing of the proposed site to Gonzago (the patron) in 1470, after 1462. The construction began in June 1472, shortly ...


1

Water mainly came via the Avens river Nar (that goes into Tiber) from lacus velinus near Reate. Its water came from mountains. Marius Curius Dentatus has drained the waters of the lake into the river Nar. In doing so, he created the marmore waterfalls: The Marmore Falls, extolled during the centuries for its beauty, appears like a roaming water column ...


1

Why Tuscaky of all places? In 1608 in Aleppo Fakhr-al-Din had signed a treaty with the Medici's Tuscany envoyees in Aleppo, so it was the Medici who seeked him first. In 1613 he had already started to struggle for independance from the Ottoman empire and he was at great risk. So he fled to Tuscany where he was welcome in Florence by Cosimo II who hosted him ...


1

Although it is true Italy felt as "The Odd Man Out" with its alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, there are some cultural ties with that of France and Italy that cannot be overlooked. The basic foundation of the "Romance Languages," religion, and history. I also feel that the "Entente" powers were less of a threat to Italy. France also was preoccupied ...



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