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Well, France and Italy WERE allied to Japan in WW1.


First of all, the 1700s are not the 17th century. The 17th century is 1600-1699. The 1700s are the 18th century counting forward from the birth of Christ as computed by Dionysus Exiguus. Northern Italy was divided into many different small states, most of which were duchies. A typical example would be the Duchy of Mantua in Lombardy. There were also two ...


For centuries in the Middle Ages, in many regions of Europe there were not kings, but dukes, archdukes, etc. For instance, in Italy one had the Archduke of Tuscany and the Duke of Piedmont (until 1720) or the Duke (Doge) of Venice, etc. They were completely autonomous entities, but they were not kings. Apparently in some cases, this mattered a lot: the ...

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