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24

I seriously doubt it. Japan was a traditional monarchy, philosophically and ideologically far closer to China than Germany. Of course both were mortal enemies and had been for centuries. Far more likely they were drawn together simply by the fact that both were shut out from the "international community" and felt slighted by the UK and US (and in case of ...


23

This is a matter of very hot debate. It depends on what assumptions you make about what would have happened in the future. But there are two basic scenarios: The bombings saved somewhere in the neighborhood of 250 - 500 thousand US lives, and Japanese lives in the millions. The bombings saved US lives numbered only in the thousands, and actually cost the ...


17

The Japanese, Germans, and Italians primarily allied based on their late-bloomer status and desire for geopolitical revisionism. Whereas countries like England, France, Russia, and so forth had unified and developed empires in the centuries prior to industrialization, the Axis powers had not really unified and become politically and militarily centralized ...


11

Another Wikipedia article might hold your answer. News of Japan's surrender didn't reach everyone all at once (as you'd expect), though it is surprising how many Japanese soldiers were still holding out for years. According to that article, the following number of soldiers surrendered or were killed (by decade): 1940s: 85 1950s: 34 1960s: 2 1970s: 4 As ...


10

I can think of a number of reasons, but they fall under two categories: 1) Logistics and 2) Morale Logistics. With the Japanese islands cut off from the outside world, the Japanese islands could not produce enough food to feed its population and the soldiers already on the islands. Pulling another 2-3 million troops from China would have only aggravated ...


10

Wow, where to start. Basically, ignore anything in the previous answer regarding Europe and shields. As far European metallurgy goes, pattern welding was in use as early as the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The technique continued to be used up until about the end of the viking era (mid 11th century) when quenching and tempering basically took over. As a ...


8

How many troop transports did the Japanese retain at that point in time? What success would they have had by then in protecting such a cargo from US submarines, surface vessels and air craft while it shuttled across? The East China Sea is a far cry from the Straights of Dover after all, and that wasn't called The Miracle of Dunkirk for no reason. The North ...


8

No. For instance, you are wrong that Japan promoted racism on the official basis. In fact, throughout the war up to 1944 they conducted several international conferences against racism. This was very bold move given the position of Germany. Japan also was the government that proposed amendments to the League of Nations charter condemning racism (before the ...


7

Because they used a wakizashi instead. The inferior quality of medieval and pre-medieval European metallurgy (compared to Japanese) may have been the cause of the real question: Why did Europeans continue to use a shield so late, instead of the more efficient use of a sword-catcher, second sword, or buckler? [edit] Or a second hand on the main sword ...


7

Although the Japanese attack was unexpected in its timing, The US Navy was well aware: (a) that the Japanese were in the habit of attacking before a formal declaration of war; and (b) that a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor was both possible and likely to be devastating, having itself simulated such an attack several times over the past 15 years as outlined ...


6

It is impossible to say how many lives were saved by the atomic bombing of Japan because no one knows when Japan would have surrendered if the bombs had not been dropped. However, it is likely that the war would have gone on for many months and culminated in the US invasion planned for November 1, 1946. In that case, many tens of thousands, if not hundreds ...


6

Among some of the more notable officers were: Lieutenant Colonel Mukaiyama, reportedly a staff officer in the 38th Army who became a technical advisor to the Vietnamese; killed in combat in 1946. Credited by some as the leader of Japanese forces in Vietnam, and sometimes ranked as a full colonel. Major Ishii Takuo, a staff officer in the 55th Division who ...


6

From the notes of the first Target Committee meeting (spring 1945) Tokyo is a possibility but it is now practically all bombed and burned out and is practically rubble with only the palace grounds left standing. Consideration is only possible here. The same was true of most Japanese cities. From The making of the atomic bomb. The committee had ...


6

The Qing Dynasty had run out of steam by the 19th century. The government did try to modernise (the Self-Strengthening Movement) but the imperial government's authority was too weak and its civic infrastructure was too corrupt to embark on the systematic modernisation that Japan undertook in the Meiji era. The factions within the Qing imperial court and ...


6

The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over ...


6

Of course! There are major differences between the ideology of Germany, Japan and Italy, but there is one major similarity: they disliked the communists. If the immediate threat from the left was less than in Italy and Germany, it nevertheless is apparent that the establishment was alarmed by it. After 1918, when spontaneous riots over the rocketing ...


6

Good question. I decided to look up the cities in an encyclopedia from the late 1920s to early 1930s. (You would buy the books, a total of 23, over a longer period of time, which is why the year differs between the different books.) The encyclopedia in question is a Swedish one, Nordisk Familjebok, Nordic Family Book. Here's a rouch translation of the ...


5

I am fortunate in being 75 years of age. I travelled extensively during my 22 years in the British Royal Navy and have spoken over the years, to many people of various nationalities. One should remember that each country writes it's own history and therefore it is bound to suffer from at least some bias. The best education about the WW2 subjects mentioned ...


5

As always, the uniform would differ from one school to another school. But in the Showa period (1920s-1985) school uniforms is highly characterized by a strong influence from the military - especially the navy. Japan had been in rigorous military transformation since the start of Meiji period (1868), and it is reflected in the education system it produced - ...


5

The full quote is actually: "Measured by the standards of modern civilization, [Japan] would be like a boy of twelve as compared with [the Anglo-Saxon] development of 45 years,” In the 1800's and early 1900's, Japan placed great emphasis on Westernizing. They brought American and Western military leaders to Japan to modernize their army. In many respects, ...


5

Yes and no. Reasons for YES: Both were anti-communist and had geopolitical claims against the Soviet Union. Both were rebelling against the international order created by established powers as established in the settlement of World War I. Both were obsessed with economic autarky and wanted to build land empires to achieve it. Germany vis-a-vis "the ...


4

Of course, proof of absence is a very hard thing to achieve, but I'm going to argue that the US Army at least absolutely did not organize military brothels in Western Europe. My main source is What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II France by Mary Louise Roberts. This book is somewhat unfavorably reviewed on Amazon by veterans who state ...


4

Two reasons are that the Japanese brutality was less "comprehensive" than the German brutality, and also less incongruous with the American image of Japan. Instances of Japanese brutality against Chinese, and other civilian groups are well documented. For all that, they appeared to be at least somewhat "random." That is to say, there was no comprehensive ...


4

I think the biggest motivation for excluding women as successors is to limit the number of potential heirs and to concentrate power for the reigning sovereign. Furthermore the reasons against doing so are weak. Japanese Empresses First, a background of Japanese empresses. From Wikipedia: Empress Suiko (554–628), r. 593–628—first ruling empress Empress ...


4

Pieter Geerkens and Tom Au has made good points about the logistical and technical feasibility of moving so many soldiers back to Japan. I would also contend that the Imperial General Headquarters would not have wanted to do so either. The first reason is: because Japan did not need them. The imminent invasion was Operation Olympic, scheduled for 1 November ...


4

Another issue was that the China War was run by the Japanese Army. The war against America was run by the Japanese Navy. These two groups did not cooperate much if at all with each other during the war. Source: Wikipedia on "Interservice Rivalries". Virtually any history of the development of the IJN will also give some information Japan The ...


4

Indeed, Japanese diplomatic codes had been broken. But the message sent to the Japanese Embassy in Washington, intended to be delivered before the attack (but in fact delivered later) did not contain a formal declaration of war, so although Washington knew a few hours before the attack that diplomacy was coming to an end, and war was coming, they did not ...


4

In addition to Tom Au's answer on the Meiji Restoration above, is the break down of the central coordinating mechanisms of the Tokugawa or Edo Era that preceded the Meiji Era. In ca 1600, Japan was unified under a military regime (bakufu or Shogunate) led by the supreme military leader, the Shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu who had his castle in Edo (now Tokyo). The ...


4

The treatment of Japanese employers in Hawaii and the mainland US was very different. In Hawaii, they were able to keep their businesses largely unmolested, but in the continental US, most would lose their businesses. The Japanese were not expelled, but kept in internment camps until the war ended and would not be paid for their economic losses by until the ...


4

Hirohito didn't make a speech or address, but he sent out an official announcement to the military and to Tojo that Japanese civilians should commit suicide rather than be taken prisoner. As the war turned against the Japanese, Hirohito personally found the threat of defection of Japanese civilians disturbing because there was a risk that live civilians ...



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