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25

I seriously doubt it. Japan was a traditional monarchy, philosophically and ideologically far closer to China than Germany. Of course both were mortal enemies and had been for centuries. Far more likely they were drawn together simply by the fact that both were shut out from the "international community" and felt slighted by the UK and US (and in case of ...


20

Yes, there were extensive rapes by American soldiers during the Second World War. During the Second World War American GIs in Europe raped around 14,000 civilian women, in England, France and Germany. There were around 3,500 rapes by American servicemen in France between June 1944 and the end of the war ... some Allied troops were punished for sexual ...


18

The Japanese, Germans, and Italians primarily allied based on their late-bloomer status and desire for geopolitical revisionism. Whereas countries like England, France, Russia, and so forth had unified and developed empires in the centuries prior to industrialization, the Axis powers had not really unified and become politically and militarily centralized ...


17

The usual explanation is that Japanese culture believed the soul resides in the abdomen. Since the ritual of seppuku or harakiri is usually meant to provide an honourable death, cutting open the abdomen was an act that "bares the soul", so to speak. The Meiji educator Dr. Nitobe Inazō wrote in his famous Bushido: the Soul of Japan that: [T]he choice of ...


13

Executive Summary The small conflict was important to SU but much less so for Japan. Japanese ground forces were not the best Despite the purges, the Red Army still had some good generals (surprised?) Details Importance Stalin wanted to point Japan south and east, freeing himself to pursue his European expansion policy. He wanted to give the IJN a ...


12

In general, people fight over thrones because of the power it represents. For Japan, the tennō was not particularly powerful in the first place, but moreover lost secular power quite early in Japanese history. For most of the last 1,200 years, true political power was decoupled from the imperial title. Hence while many factions fought for power in Japan, ...


11

Another Wikipedia article might hold your answer. News of Japan's surrender didn't reach everyone all at once (as you'd expect), though it is surprising how many Japanese soldiers were still holding out for years. According to that article, the following number of soldiers surrendered or were killed (by decade): 1940s: 85 1950s: 34 1960s: 2 1970s: 4 As ...


11

Kind of, but not as such. The closest to what you're probably thinking of is the nihonjin-machi that began to form in the Pacific around the same time as Europe's Renaissance. These were primarily mercantile communities, but later also housed significant numbers of samurais, Christians and other exiles from Japan. None of them survived after the early modern ...


10

That crest is called a marunikatabami (丸に片喰 or 丸に酢漿草). The design is an encircled creeping woodsorrel flower. As such it is considered a variation of the more primary, and popular, katabami (片喰) crest, which is the same minus the circular border. The creeping woodsorrel grows extremely well as a wild weed; it is known for being difficult to uproot once it ...


10

Short Answer Roughly speaking, in the early decades after 1867: ~7% became educators ~16% became public servants ~25% became corporate employees the rest became unemployed or farmers Overview Most of them actually did not do particularly well. After the Meiji Restoration, the samurai became the new shizoku class and initially received stipends from ...


10

There were several reasons why this could not or would not happen. 1. Shoguns were appointed officers of the state Although one might describe the Shogunate as hereditary (in the same sense that the Crown of the Holy Roman Empire was "hereditary"), the office of Shogun was technically an Imperial appointment. Powerful samurai clans lobby the Imperial Court ...


9

You are referring to the medieval Japanese legal doctrine of kenka ryō sebai (喧嘩両成敗), literally, in quarrels, punish both sides. The prescribed punishment varied, but use of the death penalty indeed predates the Tokugawa rise to power after 1600. The earliest example is a law promulgated in April 1445 that mandated beheading. ...


9

No. For instance, you are wrong that Japan promoted racism on the official basis. In fact, throughout the war up to 1944 they conducted several international conferences against racism. This was very bold move given the position of Germany. Japan also was the government that proposed amendments to the League of Nations charter condemning racism (before the ...


9

Japan did have naval forces at the time, and they probably fought the Mongolians a few times. The samurai Takezaki Suenaga, a gokenin from Higo in central Kyūshū, was a veteran of both wars. To showcase his valour in battle (to request rewards from the government), Takezaki commissioned the Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, an illustrated account of the Mongol ...


8

Of course! There are major differences between the ideology of Germany, Japan and Italy, but there is one major similarity: they disliked the communists. If the immediate threat from the left was less than in Italy and Germany, it nevertheless is apparent that the establishment was alarmed by it. After 1918, when spontaneous riots over the rocketing ...


8

About the Yasukuni Shrine part of the question, since no one has addressed that: It is important to remember the nature of that establishment. The Yasukuni Shrine houses over 2.4 million of Japan's war dead, only 0.043% of whom (1,068) are convicted of any war crimes. They weren't even all members of the Japanese military. Those commemorated at the shrine ...


7

Addressing the link you cited, Tokugawa Ieyasu taking no part in fighting is not the same as opposing the war in general. In fact, Ieyasu was the one who proposed the invasion strategy that Hideyoshi adopted. When combat operations began, Tokugawa troops were part of the reserves who stayed in Kyushu. But, as you said, whether or not Ieyasu actually opposed ...


7

Good question. I decided to look up the cities in an encyclopedia from the late 1920s to early 1930s. (You would buy the books, a total of 23, over a longer period of time, which is why the year differs between the different books.) The encyclopedia in question is a Swedish one, Nordisk Familjebok, Nordic Family Book. Here's a rouch translation of the ...


7

In terms of recorded history, the earliest contact that I know was in 50 B.C., when a Japanese army supposedly aborted its invasion upon hearing of the Silla king's greatness. Make of its credibility what you will... 《三國史記·新羅本紀》八年,倭人行兵,欲犯邊,聞始祖有神德,乃還。 This is recorded in the History of the Three Kingdoms, written in A.D. 1145. The same document reports ...


7

Semaphore's answer is excellent, as usual. Let me add just an anecdotal perspective. Is their any evidence that rape was perpetrated by American soldiers during WWII? My grand-mother, a teenager at the time, was part of a fairly active resistance network interacting with the British military. On the wake of the liberation of her area of France, her ...


7

That appears to be a maru-ni-mitsu-kashiwa (丸に三つ柏) crest, also known as a maru-ni-makino-kashiwa (丸に牧野柏). It is an encircled, three-leafed version of the kashiwa crest designs, one of the Big Ten styles of crests. These crests features an underlying design derived from the leaf of a Daimyo Oak tree. In Winter, dead leafs of a Quercus dentata tree do not ...


7

Because they were not "better" or "more effective". There are generally poor reports of the People's Liberation Army's effectiveness against Japan during World War II. - Elleman, Bruce A. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Routledge, 2005. Keep in mind that comparisons are difficult to make because the Nationalists[1] bore the brunt[2] of all ...


7

They didn't end up in any one particular place. In more recent decades, discovered skulls are generally returned to Japan, or disposed of in various ways (lack of identification). Certainly at least some would have been gotten rid of (through burial or otherwise) since WW2 was still ongoing. American authorities did not officially approve of the practise. ...


6

Yes and no. Reasons for YES: Both were anti-communist and had geopolitical claims against the Soviet Union. Both were rebelling against the international order created by established powers as established in the settlement of World War I. Both were obsessed with economic autarky and wanted to build land empires to achieve it. Germany vis-a-vis "the ...


6

Among some of the more notable officers were: Lieutenant Colonel Mukaiyama, reportedly a staff officer in the 38th Army who became a technical advisor to the Vietnamese; killed in combat in 1946. Credited by some as the leader of Japanese forces in Vietnam, and sometimes ranked as a full colonel. Major Ishii Takuo, a staff officer in the 55th Division who ...


6

The Tripartite Pact explicitly excluded Russia; thus, given the The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, it is hard do imagine that Hitler expected a Japanese attack on Russia. Hitler thought that Russia was, for all practical purposes, already defeated; he declared war on the US saying that for all intents and purposes they are already fighting - this just ...


6

The short answer is because the Japanese government does not designate it as a public holiday. Officially, China does in fact celebrate New Year's Day (元旦) on the Western (Gregorian) 1 January. In contrast, the traditional lunar new year is a public holiday named Spring Festival (春节). Since the latter is a longer holiday, combined with ancient traditions, ...


5

The Japanese were totally unprepared for modern tanks. They had no antitank capability and little to no practice with fighting tanks. When they got into a battle in good tank country with a mess of Soviet tanks, the result was predictable. The Finland failures were due to the inability of the Soviets to deploy and fight their forces in the rough country ...


5

Japanese cuisine and culture are very much focused on rice - I don't think you can really call anything else a staple food. However, there are a number of foodstuff that had been introduced into Japan by Europeans, and achieved varying levels of popularity. For example, base foodstuffs that have became important include: Chili pepper, introduced in 1542 - ...


5

Kantai Kessen (a variant of the Manhanian Doctrine) meant holding a solid perimeter of locations such as the Caroline islands, Marshall islands, Mariana Islands and Palau; and to wait for the enemy force to attack Japan. Having already suffered the effects of attrition from the Japanese perimeter the enemy force would be annihilated ending their threat in ...



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