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24

I seriously doubt it. Japan was a traditional monarchy, philosophically and ideologically far closer to China than Germany. Of course both were mortal enemies and had been for centuries. Far more likely they were drawn together simply by the fact that both were shut out from the "international community" and felt slighted by the UK and US (and in case of ...


17

The Japanese, Germans, and Italians primarily allied based on their late-bloomer status and desire for geopolitical revisionism. Whereas countries like England, France, Russia, and so forth had unified and developed empires in the centuries prior to industrialization, the Axis powers had not really unified and become politically and militarily centralized ...


11

Wow, where to start. Basically, ignore anything in the previous answer regarding Europe and shields. As far European metallurgy goes, pattern welding was in use as early as the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The technique continued to be used up until about the end of the viking era (mid 11th century) when quenching and tempering basically took over. As a ...


11

Another Wikipedia article might hold your answer. News of Japan's surrender didn't reach everyone all at once (as you'd expect), though it is surprising how many Japanese soldiers were still holding out for years. According to that article, the following number of soldiers surrendered or were killed (by decade): 1940s: 85 1950s: 34 1960s: 2 1970s: 4 As ...


11

Executive Summary The small conflict was important to SU but much less so for Japan. Japanese ground forces were not the best Despite the purges, the Red Army still had some good generals (surprised?) Details Importance Stalin wanted to point Japan south and east, freeing himself to pursue his European expansion policy. He wanted to give the IJN a ...


11

Kind of, but not as such. The closest to what you're probably thinking of is the nihonjin-machi that began to form in the Pacific around the same time as Europe's Renaissance. These were primarily mercantile communities, but later also housed significant numbers of samurais, Christians and other exiles from Japan. None of them survived after the early modern ...


10

Short Answer Roughly speaking, in the early decades after 1867: ~7% became educators ~16% became public servants ~25% became corporate employees the rest became unemployed or farmers Overview Most of them actually did not do particularly well. After the Meiji Restoration, the samurai became the new shizoku class and initially received stipends from ...


9

No. For instance, you are wrong that Japan promoted racism on the official basis. In fact, throughout the war up to 1944 they conducted several international conferences against racism. This was very bold move given the position of Germany. Japan also was the government that proposed amendments to the League of Nations charter condemning racism (before the ...


8

Japan did have naval forces at the time, and they probably fought the Mongolians a few times. The samurai Takezaki Suenaga, a gokenin from Higo in central Kyūshū, was a veteran of both wars. To showcase his valour in battle (to request rewards from the government), Takezaki commissioned the Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, an illustrated account of the Mongol ...


7

Because they used a wakizashi instead. The inferior quality of medieval and pre-medieval European metallurgy (compared to Japanese) may have been the cause of the real question: Why did Europeans continue to use a shield so late, instead of the more efficient use of a sword-catcher, second sword, or buckler? [edit] Or a second hand on the main sword ...


7

The Qing Dynasty had run out of steam by the 19th century. The government did try to modernise (the Self-Strengthening Movement) but the imperial government's authority was too weak and its civic infrastructure was too corrupt to embark on the systematic modernisation that Japan undertook in the Meiji era. The factions within the Qing imperial court and ...


7

Of course! There are major differences between the ideology of Germany, Japan and Italy, but there is one major similarity: they disliked the communists. If the immediate threat from the left was less than in Italy and Germany, it nevertheless is apparent that the establishment was alarmed by it. After 1918, when spontaneous riots over the rocketing ...


7

Good question. I decided to look up the cities in an encyclopedia from the late 1920s to early 1930s. (You would buy the books, a total of 23, over a longer period of time, which is why the year differs between the different books.) The encyclopedia in question is a Swedish one, Nordisk Familjebok, Nordic Family Book. Here's a rouch translation of the ...


6

The key to the successful modernization of Japan was the successful Meiji Restoration of 1868. This centralized the national power in the hands of the Emperor, taking it out of the hands of the warlords. (The last warlord was defeated in Hakodate, Sapporo, in 1869.) Once the centralization of power occurred, it was much easier to project Imperial power over ...


6

Among some of the more notable officers were: Lieutenant Colonel Mukaiyama, reportedly a staff officer in the 38th Army who became a technical advisor to the Vietnamese; killed in combat in 1946. Credited by some as the leader of Japanese forces in Vietnam, and sometimes ranked as a full colonel. Major Ishii Takuo, a staff officer in the 55th Division who ...


6

In terms of recorded history, the earliest contact that I know was in 50 B.C., when a Japanese army supposedly aborted its invasion upon hearing of the Silla king's greatness. Make of its credibility what you will... 《三國史記·新羅本紀》八年,倭人行兵,欲犯邊,聞始祖有神德,乃還。 This is recorded in the History of the Three Kingdoms, written in A.D. 1145. The same document reports ...


5

I think the biggest motivation for excluding women as successors is to limit the number of potential heirs and to concentrate power for the reigning sovereign. Furthermore the reasons against doing so are weak. Japanese Empresses First, a background of Japanese empresses. From Wikipedia: Empress Suiko (554–628), r. 593–628—first ruling empress Empress ...


5

Two reasons are that the Japanese brutality was less "comprehensive" than the German brutality, and also less incongruous with the American image of Japan. Instances of Japanese brutality against Chinese, and other civilian groups are well documented. For all that, they appeared to be at least somewhat "random." That is to say, there was no comprehensive ...


5

In addition to Tom Au's answer on the Meiji Restoration above, is the break down of the central coordinating mechanisms of the Tokugawa or Edo Era that preceded the Meiji Era. In ca 1600, Japan was unified under a military regime (bakufu or Shogunate) led by the supreme military leader, the Shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu who had his castle in Edo (now Tokyo). The ...


5

The full quote is actually: "Measured by the standards of modern civilization, [Japan] would be like a boy of twelve as compared with [the Anglo-Saxon] development of 45 years,” In the 1800's and early 1900's, Japan placed great emphasis on Westernizing. They brought American and Western military leaders to Japan to modernize their army. In many respects, ...


5

Yes and no. Reasons for YES: Both were anti-communist and had geopolitical claims against the Soviet Union. Both were rebelling against the international order created by established powers as established in the settlement of World War I. Both were obsessed with economic autarky and wanted to build land empires to achieve it. Germany vis-a-vis "the ...


4

The treatment of Japanese employers in Hawaii and the mainland US was very different. In Hawaii, they were able to keep their businesses largely unmolested, but in the continental US, most would lose their businesses. The Japanese were not expelled, but kept in internment camps until the war ended and would not be paid for their economic losses by until the ...


4

Pieter Geerkens and Tom Au has made good points about the logistical and technical feasibility of moving so many soldiers back to Japan. I would also contend that the Imperial General Headquarters would not have wanted to do so either. The first reason is: because Japan did not need them. The imminent invasion was Operation Olympic, scheduled for 1 November ...


4

Another issue was that the China War was run by the Japanese Army. The war against America was run by the Japanese Navy. These two groups did not cooperate much if at all with each other during the war. Source: Wikipedia on "Interservice Rivalries". Virtually any history of the development of the IJN will also give some information Japan The ...


4

The samurai used to change their masters a lot, especially in the Sengoku era. A rōnin who came from a defeated clan where his master has been killed can attach himself to another clan and serve as a samurai. In the movie Seven Samurai, several farmers hire rōnin to protect their farms from bandits. the movie describe them as noble heroes who stand up for ...


4

About the Yasukuni Shrine part of the question, since no one has addressed that: It is important to remember the nature of that establishment. The Yasukuni Shrine houses over 2.4 million of Japan's war dead, only 0.043% of whom (1,068) are convicted of any war crimes. They weren't even all members of the Japanese military. Those commemorated at the shrine ...


4

Hirohito didn't make a speech or address, but he sent out an official announcement to the military and to Tojo that Japanese civilians should commit suicide rather than be taken prisoner. As the war turned against the Japanese, Hirohito personally found the threat of defection of Japanese civilians disturbing because there was a risk that live civilians ...


4

None of the contemporary accounts I have read, such as that of Francis L. Hawks (1861), which is more or less the official account of the missions, make any mention of an attack of any kind. In the Hawks narrative the embassy is presented as entirely peaceful. Also, the text of the letter which Millard Fillmore gave to Perry for delivery to the Emperor ...


4

Japanese cuisine and culture are very much focused on rice - I don't think you can really call anything else a staple food. However, there are a number of foodstuff that had been introduced into Japan by Europeans, and achieved varying levels of popularity. For example, base foodstuffs that have became important include: Chili pepper, introduced in 1542 - ...


3

I think the answer is no, and in any case there are a variety of material and strategic factors, like a set of common enemies, that would make it hard to say that ideology was a driving force in the alliance between Germany and Japan. Asking as someone from the US, you also have to keep in mind that our perspective is biased. It's easy to focus on the ...



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