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23

This is probably a slightly garbled account of the destruction of Shuri Castle in Okinawa. During the Second World War's Battle of Okinawa, the battleship USS Mississippi shelled the historical Ryukyu palace for three days prior to its capture by US marines. At 0718 on May 25, the Mississippi began a murderous onslaught with her 5 and 14-inch guns that ...


21

Yes, there were extensive rapes by American soldiers during the Second World War. During the Second World War American GIs in Europe raped around 14,000 civilian women, in England, France and Germany. There were around 3,500 rapes by American servicemen in France between June 1944 and the end of the war ... some Allied troops were punished for sexual ...


21

The usual explanation is that Japanese culture believed the soul resides in the abdomen. Since the ritual of seppuku or harakiri is usually meant to provide an honourable death, cutting open the abdomen was an act that "bares the soul", so to speak. The Meiji educator Dr. Nitobe Inazō wrote in his famous Bushido: the Soul of Japan that: [T]he choice of ...


19

This modern tradition has its roots in the First World War, when Japan entered on the side of the Allies following the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Japan's entry carried an initial, overt goal of restoring the German Kiautschou Bay Concession to Chinese sovereignty. The Siege of Tsingtao, the administrative centre of the German concession, ended in the ...


14

In general, people fight over thrones because of the power it represents. For Japan, the tennō was not particularly powerful in the first place, but moreover lost secular power quite early in Japanese history. For most of the last 1,200 years, true political power was decoupled from the imperial title. Hence while many factions fought for power in Japan, ...


13

Executive Summary The small conflict was important to SU but much less so for Japan. Japanese ground forces were not the best Despite the purges, the Red Army still had some good generals (surprised?) Details Importance Stalin wanted to point Japan south and east, freeing himself to pursue his European expansion policy. He wanted to give the IJN a ...


12

That crest is called a marunikatabami (丸に片喰 or 丸に酢漿草). The design is an encircled creeping woodsorrel flower. As such it is considered a variation of the more primary, and popular, katabami (片喰) crest, which is the same minus the circular border. The creeping woodsorrel grows extremely well as a wild weed; it is known for being difficult to uproot once it ...


12

Short Answer Roughly speaking, in the early decades after 1867: ~7% became educators ~16% became public servants ~25% became corporate employees the rest became unemployed or farmers Overview Most of them actually did not do particularly well. After the Meiji Restoration, the samurai became the new shizoku class and initially received stipends from ...


12

Kind of, but not as such. The closest to what you're probably thinking of is the nihonjin-machi that began to form in the Pacific around the same time as Europe's Renaissance. These were primarily mercantile communities, but later also housed significant numbers of samurais, Christians and other exiles from Japan. None of them survived after the early modern ...


12

About the Yasukuni Shrine part of the question, since no one has addressed that: It is important to remember the nature of that establishment. The Yasukuni Shrine houses over 2.4 million of Japan's war dead, only 0.043% of whom (1,068) are convicted of any war crimes. They weren't even all members of the Japanese military. Those commemorated at the shrine ...


12

Let me illustrate @StuartAllan's answer: if they hear "Japanese castle", people think about this: And while that is pretty and impressive, it will of course be a heap of smoking rubble after no more than a few hits from a battleship's guns. But what the attacking military is really up against is this: and laying waste to it is gonna take some time... ...


10

There were several reasons why this could not or would not happen. 1. Shoguns were appointed officers of the state Although one might describe the Shogunate as hereditary (in the same sense that the Crown of the Holy Roman Empire was "hereditary"), the office of Shogun was technically an Imperial appointment. Powerful samurai clans lobby the Imperial Court ...


9

You are referring to the medieval Japanese legal doctrine of kenka ryō sebai (喧嘩両成敗), literally, in quarrels, punish both sides. The prescribed punishment varied, but use of the death penalty indeed predates the Tokugawa rise to power after 1600. The earliest example is a law promulgated in April 1445 that mandated beheading. ...


9

Japan did have naval forces at the time, and they probably fought the Mongolians a few times. The samurai Takezaki Suenaga, a gokenin from Higo in central Kyūshū, was a veteran of both wars. To showcase his valour in battle (to request rewards from the government), Takezaki commissioned the Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, an illustrated account of the Mongol ...


8

In terms of recorded history, the earliest contact that I know was in 50 B.C., when a Japanese army supposedly aborted its invasion upon hearing of the Silla king's greatness. Make of its credibility what you will... 《三國史記·新羅本紀》八年,倭人行兵,欲犯邊,聞始祖有神德,乃還。 This is recorded in the History of the Three Kingdoms, written in A.D. 1145. The same document reports ...


8

Hideyoshi's reasons were not singular. A number of factors motivated his invasion of Korea. Although speculative hypothesis regarding his mental state is popular, domestic pressure for expansion coupled with seemingly-promising opportunities sufficiently explains the decision. TL;DR: Hideyoshi needed land and to keep his soldiers occupied. Korea was an easy ...


8

They didn't end up in any one particular place. In more recent decades, discovered skulls are generally returned to Japan, or disposed of in various ways (lack of identification). Certainly at least some would have been gotten rid of (through burial or otherwise) since WW2 was still ongoing. American authorities did not officially approve of the practise. ...


7

Addressing the link you cited, Tokugawa Ieyasu taking no part in fighting is not the same as opposing the war in general. In fact, Ieyasu was the one who proposed the invasion strategy that Hideyoshi adopted. When combat operations began, Tokugawa troops were part of the reserves who stayed in Kyushu. But, as you said, whether or not Ieyasu actually opposed ...


7

Semaphore's answer is excellent, as usual. Let me add just an anecdotal perspective. Is their any evidence that rape was perpetrated by American soldiers during WWII? My grand-mother, a teenager at the time, was part of a fairly active resistance network interacting with the British military. On the wake of the liberation of her area of France, her ...


7

That appears to be a maru-ni-mitsu-kashiwa (丸に三つ柏) crest, also known as a maru-ni-makino-kashiwa (丸に牧野柏). It is an encircled, three-leafed version of the kashiwa crest designs, one of the Big Ten styles of crests. These crests features an underlying design derived from the leaf of a Daimyo Oak tree. In Winter, dead leafs of a Quercus dentata tree do not ...


7

The Tripartite Pact explicitly excluded Russia; thus, given the The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, it is hard do imagine that Hitler expected a Japanese attack on Russia. Hitler thought that Russia was, for all practical purposes, already defeated; he declared war on the US saying that for all intents and purposes they are already fighting - this just ...


7

Because they were not "better" or "more effective". There are generally poor reports of the People's Liberation Army's effectiveness against Japan during World War II. - Elleman, Bruce A. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Routledge, 2005. Keep in mind that comparisons are difficult to make because the Nationalists[1] bore the brunt[2] of all ...


7

The short answer is because the Japanese government does not designate it as a public holiday. Officially, China does in fact celebrate New Year's Day (元旦) on the Western (Gregorian) 1 January. In contrast, the traditional lunar new year is a public holiday named Spring Festival (春节). Since the latter is a longer holiday, combined with ancient traditions, ...


7

The answer to your question I guess is that firstly definitely we have to consider the aids by U.S after the war, like well, Japanese children asking for the Americans soliders for chocolates etc etc, but the real booster in terms of the economic impact was probably due to the korean war. SCAP officials believed economic development could not only ...


6

Among some of the more notable officers were: Lieutenant Colonel Mukaiyama, reportedly a staff officer in the 38th Army who became a technical advisor to the Vietnamese; killed in combat in 1946. Credited by some as the leader of Japanese forces in Vietnam, and sometimes ranked as a full colonel. Major Ishii Takuo, a staff officer in the 55th Division who ...


6

This questions "asks a negative" so it is impossible to answer with absolute certainty, but I would highly doubt there was any hesitation among the air crews. The B-29 crews were all elite crews who were highly expert and highly committed to the war effort. These men had already been fire bombing Tokyo and cities in Okinawa, so I doubt they had any qualms ...


6

I'm not sure why you think staff officers carried them for combat. They were not really the ones responsible for the actual fighting in the first place. More generally, Japanese officers carried swords as accessories for their uniforms. The blades were both ceremonial as well as status symbols, because higher ranks were entitled to swords with special ...


6

It's most likely illness. Takeda Shingen's death has been reported as pulmonary tuberculosis in the Buke Jiki, 武家事紀, and as throat or stomach cancer in the Kōyō Gunkan 甲陽軍鑑. There's a theory that he was killed by a bullet or bullet wound, but this is generally regarded as a popular myth. It is only found in pro-Tokugawa writings (i.e. propaganda) produced ...


6

I do not know of this incident. Check naval archives or with a librarian in naval archives. This does, however, seem highly likely. The castle itself would be a smoldering ruin (as it was almost entirely wood, designed in such a way to better absorb earthquakes). The stone/Earthwork, on the other hand, would be extremely resilient to artillery fire. Getting ...


5

The Japanese were totally unprepared for modern tanks. They had no antitank capability and little to no practice with fighting tanks. When they got into a battle in good tank country with a mess of Soviet tanks, the result was predictable. The Finland failures were due to the inability of the Soviets to deploy and fight their forces in the rough country ...



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