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The deceased emperors were not proclaimed gods (divus), they were proclaimed god-like (divinus). The temples erected after their deaths or during their lifes were dedicated to the emperor's genius (something like guardian angel). It was believed that all people had such geniuses that protected them. If somebody refused to venerate the emperor's genius, he ...


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...military standards with pagan imagery on them... That kind of imagery is violating the Jewish / Christian first commandment, something that their god did not look kindly upon (you might remember that episode with the golden calf). ...would the Jews and Christians also view them as rival Gods? I do not think it has much to do with "rivalry". For ...


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The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History: The First Zionist Congress's official language, both spoken and written, was German, but many delegates also spoke Yiddish (Hebrew-German vernacular), the language of Ashkenazic Judaism, and a Yiddish-like German known as Kongressdeutch.


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In general, the treatment of Jewish POWs was at the "low end" of what it was for others of their "nationality." POWs who were Soviet Jews were treated very badly--because they were Soviets. Things were a bit worse for men who were both Soviets and Jews, but it was basically "Soviet" that determined their treatment. POWs who were American or British were ...



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