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Ancient Romans used the word Aethiops/Aethiopem which was derived from Greek Αἰθίοψ ‎(Aithíops). But the other answer isn't right when it says that the word Aithiops had no meaning except for the land of "Ethiopia". Instead, the word is a combination created from αἴθω ‎(aíthō, “burn”) + ὤψ ‎(ṓps, “face”). So the Greco-Roman word for the blacks was ...


What you're actually looking for: J. N. Adams Latin Sexual Vocabulary. I bet I could find another, but I don't know off the top of my head.


In my earlier answers on similar questions, What are some examples of racism in pre-modern literature? How did people categorize each other in the middle ages, how did racism work? I expressed the opinion that neither Romans nor Greeks nor Jews (of the time when the Bible was written) had words to designate races. Race is a modern invention. I challenged ...


I'd say Half-Uncial (3rd Century AD) and Carolingian (9th Century AD) scripts; as it says in the Wikipedia text for the latter, Clear capital letters and spaces between words – norms we take for granted – became standard in Carolingian minuscule [...] So it was the first time both capitals and minuscules were used in a standard way (instead of ...

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