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4

In 1976 the practice was abolished by the UN under "the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights"on the grounds that "No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfill a contractual obligation." The debtors prison was abolished in some countries on the same grounds in the 19. century. E.g. it was abolished in France, ...


1

You will have a lot of work. There are hundreds. The full list is published by the Israeli ministry of justice and its in Hebrew(also include those which remarked as unlisted). Please note that not all the organisations titled as terror groups. Some of them titled as "Unlawful Association" and some other titles. Those are not active terror groups but ...


2

Nobody mentioned that Hitler also withstood several internal party votings to the position of the party leader. It is difficult to say whether these votings were fair and what would happen if he failed to secure the majority, but at least we know that Mussolini was deposed by the internal party means.


1

I believe that the ax part of a fasces was symbolic of the magistrate's authority to order executions. The Romans are alleged to have also beheaded people with devices similar to guillotines. Any source on the history of the guillotine should mention some earlier devices similar to the guillotine used in various times and places. Thus if you read simply ...


2

First I will acknowledge it is difficult to write on this topic neutrally, even 150 years later, as the scar of the Civil War still runs through the country. I'll do my best to remain factual. Did the Southern States make any attempt to secede from the Union, prior to 1861, through an act of Congress? I cannot find any record of a serious attempt, no. ...


0

The earlier laws on murder are unclear. Although it is known that some certain types of murder were defined in the original twelve tables, it is not certain what they were. The Lex Cornelia de Sicariis Veneficis of Sulla in 82 BC is the first certain Roman law of murder which provides that anyone who kills dolus malus (i.e., as part of an evil design) shall ...


1

No, they did not. If they did, most likely they could get peaceful separation (considering that Corwin Amendment passed Congress even without votes of seven seceding states). Instead, they recalled representatives from Congress, and demanded recognition from presidents (Buchanan and Lincoln), who did not have constitutional power to change state legal ...


5

Most lower class Romans and slaves wore only a knee length tunic, if they even had that much clothing. Many in modern times have indicated that wearing an undergarment was considered being naked, yet the Greek word that was usually used in the period to refer to someone who was naked was gymnos, which means a complete lack of clothing. Those who try to say ...


2

The History Channel did a very interesting program on Roman crucifixion. Women were crucified facing the cross with their feet nailed to the sides of the cross through the heals. The upright of the cross became a falace between her legs. It was common to crucify people naked or with minimal clothing. It was against Roman Law to crucify a virgin so just ...


38

In Antiquities of the Jews, the ancient historian Josephus reported an incident where the Emperor Tiberius explicitly ordered a woman to be crucified: Mundus had a freedwoman, who had been made free by his father, whose name was Ide, one skillful in all sorts of mischief ... Tiberius inquired into the matter thoroughly by examining the priests about it, ...


7

Ancient sources are pretty vague about crucifixion. My understanding is that the naked element comes from two sources: a single sentence in the Oneirocritica and from ancient Jewish practice/law. In the Oneirocritica the reference is to "naked (gumnos) flesh" on the pole (stauron). However, this work is about dreams and the context is pretty philosophical, ...



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